Vanguard Intermediate Term Bond Index Fund tax distributions
|Vanguard Fund Info|
|Intermediate Term Bond Index|
The Vanguard Intermediate Term Bond Index Fund is usually considered a candidate for placement in tax advantaged accounts. The fund is often recommended (see Fig. 1) as a core holding in a simple three-fund or four-fund portfolio, especially by investors who do not want to hold mortgage securities  in a bond allocation. Larry Swedroe  and William Bernstein  both point out that investors do not need a mutual fund for purchasing intermediate term treasury securities, so that an intermediate term corporate and/or a intermediate term municipal bond fund can be used in combination with direct investment in treasury bills and notes.
Investors holding bonds in taxable accounts can compare expected after tax returns of intermediate term municipal tax exempt bond funds, treasury intermediate term bond funds, and corporate intermediate term bond funds to determine which fund provides the highest after tax returns. The calculator below (courtesy of the The Finance Buff blog) takes into account all taxable inputs -federal, state, and alternative minimum tax- for bond fund after-tax return analysis.
The table below summarizes the fund's relation to a number of tax factors.
|Favorable tax factors||Unfavorable tax factors|| Fig. 1 |
Bill Schultheis's "Coffeehouse" portfolio
Historical gains distributions : Moderate
Dividends: Taxed at marginal tax rates
The following tables provide long term data on the fund's history of both dividend and capital gains distributions. The second table provides a database of the fund's accounting figures: the annual level of realized and distributed gains; its level of unrealized gains and loss carry-forwards; as well as any annual in-kind redemption gains the fund has realized. These figures highlight the level of a fund's tax liabilities. Because both manager turnover of securities inside the portfolio and investor turnover of fund shares can affect the level of gains realization, a third table provides historical turnover ratios.
|Vanguard funds: distributions|
The following table provides a view of the fund's historical distributions expressed in terms of yields. A portion of the dividend income (column five, Table 2.) is treasury interest, which is not subject to state tax. The fund has distributed short and long term capital gains over its history. Gains distributions tend to track the creation and dissipation of loss carry-forwards over interest rate cycles. The 2007 addition of an ETF share class to the fund should help moderate future taxable gains realizations as long as the ETF has sufficient institutional redemption.[notes 1]
The fund has changed tracking indexes once in its history. The transition year of the benchmark change is marked in red shading.
|Year||Dividend Investor shares
|Short-term Capital Gains
|Long-term Capital Gains
 [notes 2]
|Capital Return Investor||Total Return Investor|
- FY 2010 - Fund transitioned from Barclays U.S. 5–10 Year Government/Credit Bond Index to Barclays U.S. 5–10 Year Government/Credit Float Adjusted Index on 01/01/2010.
The accounting figures and associated ratios (tables 3 and 4) can help one visualize some of the major determinants of a fund’s tendency to distribute taxable gains. These determining features include:
Turnover: The rate at which a fund manager sells securities within the fund has a major effect on potential gains realization. Bond funds have higher turnover ratios than stock funds, since the bond manager must buy and sell bonds as they mature, and as the manager maintains the maturity and duration structure of the portfolio. The gains or losses on a bond are primarily determined by changes in interest rates, and in some instances, credit quality.
Similarly, fund shareholders' sales flows have major effects on a fund’s distribution tendencies. Net flows into the fund have the following effects:
- Constant inflows allow a fund manager to purchase a wide range of bonds at different prices. The manager can select high basis securities when forced to sell a bond (this may realize a loss). The manager can also select low basis securities when redeeming a bond in-kind (a non-taxable transaction that can remove an unrealized gain out of the portfolio.)
- A large and growing net asset base serves to diffuse any realized capital gains across a large base of shareholders and reduces the per share gain distribution. Large outflows have the opposite effect; any gains realized are spread across a smaller asset base and result in higher per share distributed gains. 
The level of unrealized gains and carryover realized losses in a fund: A fund which defers gains realization accumulates unrealized appreciation, which when distributed, will be taxed; thus the unrealized gain/loss figure shows the potential gain (or loss) that would be realized if the portfolio was to be entirely liquidated. Any loss carryovers a fund possesses can be used to offset future realized gains (carryovers have an eight year expiration period). The third tab on the Table 3. spreadsheet shows the data in percentage of total assets form.
Vanguard Intermediate Term Bond Index Fund has a high internal turnover rate. Shareholder turnover, on average, has suggested a holding period of roughly three years. This is shorter than the fund's average duration.
Mutual fund distributions will be taxed according to the tax laws governing the investment over the holding period of the investment, which are subject to change. The actual tax imposed will depend upon each individual's tax rate and the timing of purchases and sales. The federal tax rates applicable to mutual fund distributions and investor sales of securities for the period 2013 onward are outlined below. Keep in mind that investment income may also be subject to state and local taxation.
- Short-term capital gains distributions are made from realized gains on securities held for one year or less. Short-term gains are taxed at ordinary income tax rates up to 39.6%. Mutual fund short-term gain distributions are included in a fund's ordinary dividend distribution; therefore, capital losses may not be subtracted from these distributions when computing taxes.
- Long-term capital gains distributions are made from realized gains on securities held for more than one year. Long-term gains are taxed at 0% for taxpayers in the 10% and 15% tax brackets, at 15% for taxpayers in the 25%, 28%, 33%, and 35% tax brackets, and at 20% in the 39,6% tax bracket. They are reported on tax Schedule D along with any other capital gains, and can be reduced by capital losses.
- Qualified dividends are the ordinary dividends [notes 3] that are subject to the same tax rate that applies to long-term capital gains. They should be shown in box 1b of the Form 1099-DIV you receive.
- When you sell at a loss you will either offset capital gains which would have otherwise been taxed at your capital gains rate or you will offset income (up to $3,000 maximum per year) which would have otherwise been taxed at your marginal income tax rate, or both. If you offset capital gains that would have otherwise not been taxed at all (because your capital gains tax rate is 0%) then this part of the tax loss harvest may be an outright loss.
- The Affordable Care Act imposes a Medicare surcharge of 3.8% on all net investment income (NII) once the taxpayer's adjusted gross income exceeds $200,000 (single) or $250,000 (married); while this tax is not part of the income tax, it has the same effect on investors as a higher tax rate. The NII tax begins to apply to individuals falling in the 33% tax bracket. Thus the top effective marginal tax rate is 23.8% on qualified dividends and long-term gains, 43.4% on ordinary investment income.
|Filing status and annual taxable income - 2018||Ordinary income tax rate||Long-term capital gain rate|
|Single||Married Filing Jointly or Qualified Widow(er)||Married Filing Separately||Head of Household||Trusts and Estates||Collectibles and certain small business stock[* 1]||Unrecaptured Section 1250 gain|
In addition, there is a 3.8% Medicare tax rate on investment income in excess of an adjusted gross income of $200,000 ($250,000 for married filing jointly), and 0.9% on salary and self-employment income in excess of this level. See: ACA net investment income tax
|Filing status and annual taxable income - 2018||Long-term capital gain rate|
|Single||Married Filing Jointly or Qualified Widow(er)||Married Filing Separately||Head of Household||Trusts and Estates||Qualified dividends and other investments|
|$38,601-$425,800||$77,201 - $479,000||$38,601-$239,500||$51,701-$452,400||$2,601-$12,700||15%|
- Because ETF share classes reduce transaction costs and bring tax benefits to the fund portfolio regardless of share class turnover (which can be quite high) we provide separate R/ANA and R/S ratios for the ETFs. We must approximate the average net asset figure for ETFs. One should also note that Vanguard includes share class conversions (investor/ETF) in the sales and redemptions totals for the fund. Vanguard does not quantify conversions. These non-transaction conversions inflate the reported mutual fund shareholder ratios. The fund has experienced growth in ETF shares.
Chart: ETF ratio to total fund assets
google drive spreadsheet
Table 6. Capital gains table
(View Google Spreadsheet in browser, then File --> Download as to download the file.)
- Fairmark says:
A portion of your ordinary dividend may be non-qualified because it can include items like these:
- Taxable interest. When a mutual fund receives taxable interest, the income gets paid out as a dividend. It's a dividend when it goes out of the mutual fund, but it wasn't a dividend when it came into the mutual fund, so it can't be a qualified dividend.
- Non-qualified dividends. Your mutual fund may receive dividends that are non-qualified. For example, the mutual fund may sell shares just 35 days after buying them, but after receiving a dividend. The mutual fund has to hold the shares at least 61 days to have a qualified dividend. Any amount the mutual fund receives as a non-qualified dividend gets paid to you as a non-qualified dividend.
- Short-term capital gain. When a mutual fund has a short-term capital gain, it pays this amount to the mutual fund shareholders as an ordinary dividend.
- Holding mutual fund shares less than 61 days. You should also be aware that any dividend you receive on mutual fund shares held less than 61 days is a non-qualified dividend, even if the mutual fund reports that amount to you as a qualified dividend. You don't have to buy the shares 61 days before the dividend is paid, but the total amount of time you hold the shares (including time before and after the dividend) has to be at least 61 days.
Almost all of the dividends distributed by Equity REITS come in the form of non-qualified dividends. Non-qualified dividends are taxed at marginal income tax rates.
- Is Vanguard’s Total Bond Fund Right for Your Portfolio?, Larry Swedroe, Wise Investing, Moneywatch (February 22, 2010)
- Larry Swedroe, What Wall Street Doesn't Want You to Know, St. Martins Press, 2001, ISBN 978-0312335724, pp.274-279.
- William Bernstein, The Four Pillars of Investing, McGraw-Hill, 2002. ISBN 978-0071385299, pp.257-263.
- Dividend data is derived from the Complete filings: N-CSR reports back to 2003; N-30D reports back to 1994
- Vanguard Tax Preparation Archive
- Capital Gains are derived from annual reports, and are calculated by dividing the dollar amount capital gain distribution by the average net assets of the fund, derived from NSAR reports
- Larry E. Swedroe, What Wall Street Doesn’t Want You To Know, 2001, pp.227-28. ISBN 0312335725
- Bond Fund Yield Calculator
Income Tax Rates are available from the following sources:
- 2012 U.S. government obligations information • 2011 U.S. government obligations information • 2010 U.S. government obligations information • 2009 U.S. government obligations information •2008 U.S. government obligations information • 2007 U.S. government obligations information • 2006 U.S. government obligations information • 2005 U.S. government obligations information •2004 U.S. government obligations information