Vanguard Diversified Equity Fund tax distributions
|Vanguard funds: distributions|
The Vanguard Diversified Equities Fund is a questionable candidate for placement in taxable accounts. While the fund's dividend distributions have provided low tax burdens during its history, the fund, as is true of most actively managed funds, has distributed both long and short term gains over most of its history. The fund can be expected to distribute gains in years in which it, and its underlying fund portfolios  do not have available loss carryforwards to offset realized gains.
The fund represents a selection of actively managed fund portfolios that basically covers the US stock market; thus it serves as an active managed substitute for a passively managed Total Stock Market fund. [notes 1]
The table below summarizes the fund's relation to a number of tax factors.
|Favorable tax factors||Unfavorable tax factors|
Dividends: Slightly higher than growth indexes
Historical gains distributions : High
The following tables provide long term data on the Diversified Equity fund's history of both dividend and capital gains distributions. As fund of funds, the fund's taxable distributions come from two sources:
- Income and gains distributions received from the underlying funds.
- The sales which the fund makes when rebalancing its allocations to the underlying funds.
The first table also provides the historical distribution of qualified dividends. One should note that the fund has a fiscal year ending in October, so its reported distributions for a year reflect the prior year's December distribution of dividends and capital gains.
The second table provides a database of the fund's accounting figures: the annual level of realized and distributed gains; its level of unrealized gains and loss carryforwards; as well as the annual in-kind redemption gains the fund has realized. These figures highlight the level of a fund's tax liabilities.
Because both manager turnover of securities inside the portfolio and investor turnover of fund shares can affect the level of gains realization, a third table provides historical turnover ratios.
|The Vanguard Diversified Equity Fund has a fiscal year ending in October, so its reported distributions for a year reflect the prior year's December distribution of dividends and capital gains.|
The following table provides a view of the fund's historical distributions expressed in terms of yields. We can see that the fund has distributed both short and long term capital gains throughout its history. When available, the fund has used loss carryforwards, until depleted, to offset realized gains. The fund provides lower than average (i.e. the total market) dividend yields, and virtually 100% of dividend distributions have been qualified dividends, which under the current tax regime, are taxed at lower capital gains tax rates.
|Year||Dividend Investor shares
|Short-term Capital Gains
|Long-term Capital Gains
| Qualified Dividends
|(FY) Annual Return - Investor |
- FY 2005 dividends annualized
The accounting figures and associated ratios (tables 3 and 4) can help one visualize some of the major determinants of a fund’s tendency to distribute taxable gains. These determining features include:
Turnover: The rate at which a fund manager sells securities within the fund has a major effect on potential gains realization. Single digit annual fund turnover percentages result in a low rate of realized gains. Similarly, fund shareholders' sales flows have major effects on a fund’s distribution tendencies. Net flows into the fund have the following effects:
- Constant inflows allow a fund manager to purchase a wide range of price lots for shares. The manager can select high basis shares when forced to sell a stock (this may realize a loss). The manager can also select low basis shares when redeeming a stock in-kind (a non-taxable transaction that can remove an unrealized gain out of the portfolio.)
- A large and growing net asset base serves to diffuse any realized capital gains across a large base of shareholders and reduces the per share gain distribution. Large outflows have the opposite effect; any gains realized are spread across a smaller asset base and result in higher per share distributed gains. 
The level of unrealized gains and carryover realized losses in a fund: A fund which defers gains realization accumulates unrealized appreciation, which when distributed, will be taxed; thus the unrealized gain/loss figure shows the potential gain (or loss) that would be realized if the portfolio was to be entirely liquidated. Any loss carryovers a fund possesses can be used to offset future realized gains (carryovers have an eight year expiration period). The second tab on the Table 3. spreadsheet shows the data in percentage of total assets form.
Reference article: Average net assets
The reported turnover ratio in the fund's annual report reflects the manager turnover of the eight underlying funds in the portfolio and does not reflect the turnover ratio in the separate funds, which is much higher. Shareholder turnover has been historically moderate, reflecting a shareholder holding period of about five years. The fund has experienced net redemption in each of the past seven fiscal years (2010 through 2016).
Mutual fund distributions will be taxed according to the tax laws governing the investment over the holding period of the investment, which are subject to change. The actual tax imposed will depend upon each individual's tax rate and the timing of purchases and sales. The federal tax rates applicable to mutual fund distributions and investor sales of securities for the period 2013 onward are outlined below. Keep in mind that investment income may also be subject to state and local taxation.
- Short-term capital gains distributions are made from realized gains on securities held for one year or less. Short-term gains are taxed at ordinary income tax rates up to 39.6%. Mutual fund short-term gain distributions are included in a fund's ordinary dividend distribution; therefore, capital losses may not be subtracted from these distributions when computing taxes.
- Long-term capital gains distributions are made from realized gains on securities held for more than one year. Long-term gains are taxed at 0% for taxpayers in the 10% and 15% tax brackets, at 15% for taxpayers in the 25%, 28%, 33%, and 35% tax brackets, and at 20% in the 39,6% tax bracket. They are reported on tax Schedule D along with any other capital gains, and can be reduced by capital losses.
- Qualified dividends are the ordinary dividends <refgroup="notes">Fairmark says:
A portion of your ordinary dividend may be nonqualified because it can include items like these:
- Taxable interest. When a mutual fund receives taxable interest, the income gets paid out as a dividend. It's a dividend when it goes out of the mutual fund, but it wasn't a dividend when it came into the mutual fund, so it can't be a qualified dividend.
- Nonqualified dividends. Your mutual fund may receive dividends that are nonqualified. For example, the mutual fund may sell shares just 35 days after buying them, but after receiving a dividend. The mutual fund has to hold the shares at least 61 days to have a qualified dividend. Any amount the mutual fund receives as a nonqualified dividend gets paid to you as a nonqualified dividend.
- Short-term capital gain. When a mutual fund has a short-term capital gain, it pays this amount to the mutual fund shareholders as an ordinary dividend.
- Holding mutual fund shares less than 61 days. You should also be aware that any dividend you receive on mutual fund shares held less than 61 days is a nonqualified dividend, even if the mutual fund reports that amount to you as a qualified dividend. You don't have to buy the shares 61 days before the dividend is paid, but the total amount of time you hold the shares (including time before and after the dividend) has to be at least 61 days.
Almost all of the dividends distributed by Equity REITS come in the form of non-qualified dividends. Non-qualified dividends are taxed at marginal income tax rates. </ref> that are subject to the same tax rate that applies to long-term capital gains. They should be shown in box 1b of the Form 1099-DIV you receive.
- When you sell at a loss you will either offset capital gains which would have otherwise been taxed at your capital gains rate or you will offset income (up to $3,000 maximum per year) which would have otherwise been taxed at your marginal income tax rate, or both. If you offset capital gains that would have otherwise not been taxed at all (because your capital gains tax rate is 0%) then this part of the tax loss harvest may be an outright loss.
- The Affordable Care Act imposes a Medicare surcharge of 3.8% on all net investment income (NII) once the taxpayer's adjusted gross income exceeds $200,000 (single) or $250,000 (married); while this tax is not part of the income tax, it has the same effect on investors as a higher tax rate. The NII tax begins to apply to individuals falling in the 33% tax bracket. Thus the top effective marginal tax rate is 23.8% on qualified dividends and long-term gains, 43.4% on ordinary investment income.
|Taxable income up to this level||Tax rate|
|Single||Married filing joint||Head of Household||Ordinary income||Long-term gains and qualified dividends|
In addition, there is a 3.8% Medicare tax rate on investment income in excess of an adjusted gross income of $200,000 ($250,000 for married filing jointly), and 0.9% on salary and self-employment income in excess of this level.
The following table presents the federal tax cost on the fund's historical distributions (see second tab, table 7.) Keep in mind that distributions can also be subject to state and local taxation, with marginal rates ranging from 0% to 10.3% (an average 5% state tax rate will add an approximate 0.13% to the annual tax cost of holding the fund.) As an actively managed fund, one can expect that capital gains realization will persist going forward. The distributions will be lower after the realization of losses and the accumulation of loss carryforwards; distributions will be higher after any carryforwards are depleted. Also note that the fund's recent dividend yields have been modestly higher than its average historical yield.
The table does not include the capital gains cost associated with selling the fund at a gain. [notes 3]
Note: Average excludes the partial year returns from the first year of operations.
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Table 8. Capital gains
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- This table indicates the additional cost for the capital-gains tax when you sell, assuming that you pay taxes on the distribution and reinvest the after-tax portion of the distribution; since it is a one-time cost, the effect is annualized. For example, if you hold an investment for 30 years and lose 10% to taxes when you sell, that is equivalent to losing 0.35% every year. Thus, if you sell the fund, your cost will be the sum of the Table 4 and Table 6 costs. However, you would not pay the Table 6 cost on any stock which you either leave to your heirs or donate to charity, and thus may not pay that cost on your full investment. In particular, you might estimate your total tax cost by using the low-return line in Table 6; if stock returns are high, you will have a large taxable account and will reduce the tax cost by taking longer to deplete it or by not spending it all during your lifetime.
Taxes are computed at a tax rate of 15% on long-term gains (except in the "rate rises to 20% column", which applies if that tax reduction is allowed to expire), and on qualified dividends (except in the "no QDI" column, which applies if the tax reduction on qualified dividends expires and the rate is 35%). Although not tabulated, keep in mind that investors in the lower tax brackets (15% or lower) pay lower federal tax rates on investment income for the period 2003 - 2012, and reap higher after-tax returns, outside of tax-exempt municipal bonds, in all asset classes.
Table 9. Additional hypothetical tax costs (after taxable funds are sold) Fund Pre-tax Returns Distributions Tax Cost Annualized cost over 10 years Annualized cost over 20 years Annualized cost over 30 years 30-year cost if CG tax rate rises to 20% Any bond any all any 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Tax-efficient stock, low returns 5.00% 2.00% 0.30% 0.36% 0.30% 0.25% 0.33% Tax-efficient stock, medium returns 8.00% 2.00% 0.30% 0.63% 0.47% 0.37% 0.50% Tax-efficient stock, high returns 11.00% 2.00% 0.30% 0.84% 0.58% 0.43% 0.58% Tax-inefficient stock, low returns 5.00% 4.00% 1.00% 0.12% 0.10% 0.09% 0.12% Tax-inefficient stock, medium returns 8.00% 4.00% 1.00% 0.43% 0.33% 0.26% 0.35% Tax-inefficient stock, high returns 11.00% 4.00% 1.00% 0.66% 0.47% 0.35% 0.47%
- The fund, as a fund of funds is comprised of the following funds:
- Vanguard Growth and Income Fund Investor Shares (20.0%)
- Vanguard Windsor Fund Investor Shares (15.0%)
- Vanguard U.S. Growth Fund Investor Shares (15.0%)
- Vanguard Windsor II Fund Investor Shares (15.0%)
- Vanguard Morgan Growth Fund Investor Shares (15.0%)
- Vanguard Explorer Fund Investor Shares (10.0%)
- Vanguard Mid-Cap Growth Fund (5.0%)
- Vanguard Capital Value Fund (5.0%)
- Current tax attributes and distributions:Vanguard
- 2014 QDI • QDI 2013 • QDI 2012 • QDI 2011 • QDI 2010 • QDI 2009 • QDI 2008 • QDI 2007 • QDI 2006 • QDI 2004