529 cost comparisons

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529 cost comparisons compares directly sold state 529 plans that are unrestricted to non-residents.[note 1]

One's home state 529 plan should be investigated carefully first.

The following tables ignore in-state benefits, cost reductions, matching programs, and grants. Some states require an annual maintenance account fee for non-residents, which may be waived if certain conditions are met. There may be state restrictions on rollovers to another 529 plan or limitations on changing the beneficiary or account owner. Check each individual state's plan for further details on the cost of a particular fund or an account.

Only low cost index (or mostly indexed) funds are highlighted. While not exhaustive, these cost comparison tables note index funds, with minimal administrative and provider fees, available to residents of any state. If a range of costs is given in the notes, the given expense ratio is an average of all the underlying funds.

Age-based portfolios

Age-based funds provide balanced fund of fund portfolios with allocations that change over time, lowering stock market allocations as the time to college matriculation shortens. Many plans offer age-based plans labelled Aggressive, Moderate, and Conservative, each with different stock/bond allocations.

Age-Based Portfolios - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: (Cost Range); Fund Provider and Information; Portfolio Options
Arizona Age-Based Portfolio 0.13% Fidelity Index; Cost: .13-17%
Delaware Age-Based Portfolio 0.13% Fidelity Index; Cost: .13-17%
New Hampshire Age-Based Portfolio 0.13% Fidelity Index; Cost: .13-17%
Massachusetts Age-Based Portfolio 0.13% Fidelity Index; Cost: .13-17%
California Passive Age-Based Investment Portfolio 0.15% Cost: .11-.17%; TIAA-CREF
Nevada Age-Based 0.15% Vanguard; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
New York Age-Based 0.16% Vanguard; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
Illinois Index Age Based 0.20% Cost: .18-.21% ($10 annual maintenance fee for each Index Portfolio); Vanguard
Utah Growth 0.24% Cost: .222-.254%; Vanguard; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate, Conservative
Wisconsin Age-Based 0.24% Cost: .21-.28%; TIAA-CREF; Age-based, Agressive Age-based
Michigan Age-Based 0.26% Cost: .21-.28%; TIAA-CREF; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
Ohio Vanguard Age-Based 0.27% Cost: .24-.28; Vanguard; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
Iowa Age-Based 0.28% Vanguard
Missouri Age-Based Options 0.32% Vanguard; 3 risk levels: Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
West Virginia Age Based 0.33% Cost: .32-.34%; Vanguard
Alabama Age-Based 0.33% Cost .33-.34%; Vanguard; Conservative, Moderate, Aggressive
Tennessee Age-Based 0.35% DFA, Vanguard
Georgia Managed Allocations 0.37% Cost: .33-.38%; TIAA-CREF; Aggressive Managed, Managed
New Mexico Age Based (Index Strategy) 0.37% Cost: .31-.39%; Vanguard, Dreyfus, TIAA-CREF
Nebraska Age-Based (Index Option) 0.37% Cost .35-.39%; Vanguard, State Street; Cost: Aggressive, Growth
North Carolina Age-Based 0.38% Vanguard; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
Colorado Age-Based 0.39% Vanguard; 3 risk levels: Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
Oregon Age-Based 0.40% Avg. cost: .38-.41%; TIAA-CREF
Connecticut Managed Allocations 0.40% Cost: .39-.42%; TIAA-CREF; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
Maine iShares Age-Based Portfolio 0.47% Cost: .41-.49%; index-based ETFs
Kansas Age-Based Index track 0.50% Vanguard; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
Vermont Managed Allocation 0.50% TIAA-CREF
Indiana Age-Based 0.51% Cost: .50-.53%; Vanguard
Minnesota Moderate Age-Based 0.51% TIAA-CREF; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
Pennsylvania Age-Based 0.51% Cost: .50-.54%; Vanguard; Aggr. Growth, Growth, Mod. Growth, Cons. Growth, Income, Cons. Income
Texas Index Age Based 0.54% Cost: .51-.55%; Vanguard, TIAA-CREF, Dreyfus
Oklahoma Managed Allocation 0.54% Cost: .55-.60%; TIAA-CREF; Aggressive , Moderate, Conservative
Kentucky Managed Allocation 0.65% TIAA-CREF
Mississippi Managed Allocation 0.65% TIAA-CREF
Arkansas Age-Based 0.75% Vanguard; 3 risk levels: Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative
Hawaii Age-Based 0.75% Vanguard
Idaho Age-Based 0.75% Vanguard; Aggressive; Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income
North Dakota Age Based 0.85% Vanguard; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative

Static allocation portfolios

Static allocation funds provide balanced, usually fund of fund, portfolios that maintain a fixed asset allocation policy. These portfolios can hold a bond/stock mixture or can be exclusively devoted to stocks (as an example, a stock portfolio consisting of a Total stock market index fund and a Total international stock market index fund) or bonds (as an example, a bond portfolio consisting of a Total bond market index fund and an inflation-indexed bond fund).

Static Allocation Portfolios - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: (Cost Range); Fund Provider and Information; Portfolio Options
California Multi-Fund Portfolios 0.12% Cost: .12-.20%; TIAA-CREF; Diversified Equity, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative, Fixed Income
Arizona Static Allocation Portfolios (Fidelity Index) 0.13% Cost: .13-.20%; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative, College
Delaware Static Allocation Portfolios (Fidelity Index) 0.13% Cost: .13-.20%; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative, College
Massachusetts Static Allocation Portfolios (Fidelity Index) 0.13% Cost: .13-.20%; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative, College
New Hampshire Static Allocation Portfolios (Fidelity Index) 0.13% Cost: .13-.20%; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative, College
Nevada Multi-Fund Individual Portfolios 0.15% Vanguard; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income
New York Static Allocation Portfolios 0.16% Vanguard; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate, Conservative Growth, Income
Illinois Choice Based Index Portfolios 0.18% Cost: .18-.23% ($10 annual maintenance fee for each Index Portfolio); Vanguard Equity, Balanced, Fixed
Wisconsin Static Portfolios 0.23% Cost: .17-.26%; TIAA-CREF; Aggressive, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income, Balanced
Utah Static Equities 0.24% Cost: .235-246% developed international; 10% Total international
Michigan Static Index Options 0.25% TIAA-CREF; Intl. Equity, Global Equity, U.S. Equity, Balanced, 100% Fixed-Income
Ohio Static Allocation Options 0.25% Cost: .24-.27%; Vanguard; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income
Kansas Total Growth Index 0.26% 80% Vangaurd TSM / 15% Vanguard Intl Stock Index
Iowa Aggressive Growth Portfolio 0.28% Vanguard; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income, Conservative Income
Kansas Balanced Index 0.28% Equity Index, Vanguard Balanced Fund
Alaska ACT Portfolio 0.31% T. Rowe Price; 40% US Stock Market/ 60% Bonds; Program and maintenance fee waived
Missouri Vanguard Static Allocation Portfolios 0.32% Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income, Conservative Income
West Virginia Static Portfolios 0.33% Cost: .32-.34%; Vanguard; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Balanced,Conservative Balanced
Alabama Target Fund Portfolios 0.34% Cost: .33-34%; 6 Vanguard funds(100% to 0% equities)
Connecticut Equity Index Option 0.34% TIAA-CREF 50% U.S. + 40% International + 10% Emerging Markets
Nebraska Balanced Index 0.35% State Street, Vanguard
Tennessee Vanguard LifeStrategy Conservative Growth Fund 0.35%
Tennessee Vanguard Life Strategy Income Fund 0.35%
Virginia Static Allocation Portfolios 0.35% Cost: .33-.37%; Vanguard LifeStrategy; Aggressive, Growth, Conservative
Georgia Balanced Fund Option 0.37% Cost: .29-.40%-TIAA-CREF; 100% Equity, Balanced Fund, Fixed-Income
New Mexico Custom Choice Index Strategy 0.37% Cost: .31-.37; Aggressive, Moderately Aggressive,, Conservative, Ultra Conservative, School Years
North Carolina Static Allocation Portfolios 0.38% Cost: .37-.395%; Vanguard; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income
Oregon Target Allocation 0.38% 0.34%-.40%; TIAA-CREF, Dreyfus; Aggressive, Moderate, Conservative, Balanced Index
Colorado Blended Portfolios 0.39% Vanguard; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth
Maine iShares Diversified Portfolios 0.50% Cost: .48-.51%; iShares ETFs; Diversified Equity, Diversified Fixed Income
Indiana Static Portfolios 0.51% Cost: .50-.53%; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income, Conservative Income
Pennsylvania Multi-Fund Individual Portfolios 0.51% Cost: .50-.54%; Vanguard; Aggr. Growth, Growth, Mod. Growth, Cons. Growth, Income, Cons. Income
Texas Static Index Portfolios 100% Equity 0.54% Cost: .54-55%; Vanguard, TIAA-CREF, Dreyfus; 100% Equity, Balanced
Minnesota Static Allocation Portfolios 0.56% TIAA-CREF; 100% Equity, Balanced, 100% Fixed-Income
Oklahoma Multi-Fund Index Options 0.58% Cost: .55%-.60%; TIAA-CREF; Global Equity, Fixed-Income
Vermont Target Allocation Portfolios 0.58% Cost: .54-.62%; TIAA-CREF; Equity Index, Fixed Income
Alaska Total Equity Market Index Portfolio 0.60% T. Rowe Price
Kentucky Equity Index Option 0.66% Cost: .58-.74%; TIAA-CREF; Equity, Balanced, Fixed Income
Mississippi Diversified Options 0.71% Cost: 0.69%,0.72%TIAA-CREF; Equity, Fixed-Income
Arkansas Static Allocation Portfolios 0.75% 5 Vanguard funds: Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income
Hawaii Fixed Asset Allocation Portfolios 0.75% Vanguard; Growth, Moderate, Conservative Growth, Income
Idaho Fixed Asset Allocation Portfolios 0.75% Vanguard; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income
North Dakota Static Allocation Portfolios 0.85% Vanguard; Aggressive Growth, Growth, Moderate Growth, Conservative Growth, Income
Montana Vanguard LifeStrategy Portfolios 0.88% Cost: .87-.89%; Aggressive Growth, Moderate , Conservative

Individual Funds

U.S. stock funds

Total market funds

U.S. Total Equity Individual Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
Wisconsin U.S. Equity Index 0.15% TIAA-CREF Equity Index (Russell 3000 Index)
New York Aggressive Growth 0.16% Vanguard Institutional Total Stock Market Index
California Index U.S. Equity 0.08% TIAA-CREF Equity Index (Russell 3000 Index)
Utah Total Stock Market 0.22% Vanguard
Delaware Total Market Index Portfolio 0.11% Fidelity
Massachusetts Total Market Index Portfolio 0.11% Fidelity
New Hampshire Total Market Index Portfolio 0.11% Fidelity
Arizona Total Market Index Portfolio 0.11% Fidelity
Nevada Vanguard Total Stock Market Index 0.15%
Virginia Total Stock Index 0.26% Vanguard Total Stock Market Index
Iowa Total Domestic Stock Index Portfolio 0.28% Vanguard Total Stock Market Index
Georgia 100% Equity Option 0.29% TIAA-CREF Equity Index (Russell 3000 Index)
Alabama Vanguard Total Stock Market 0.31%
Missouri Vanguard Total Stock Market Index 0.32%
Oregon U.S. Equity Index Option 0.32% TIAA-CREF Equity Index (Russell 3000 Index)
Nebraska Vanguard Total Stock Market 0.33%
North Carolina Vanguard Total Stock Market Index 0.34%
Indiana U.S. Equity Index Portfolio 0.35% Vanguard Total Stock Market
Colorado Stock Index 0.39% Vanguard Total Stock Market
Maryland Total Equity Market Index 0.40% T. Rowe Price S&P Total Market Index
Pennsylvania Total Stock Market Index 0.48% Vanguard
Oklahoma U.S. Equity Index Option 0.49% TIAA-CREF Equity Index (Russell 3000 Index)
Montana Vanguard Total Stock Market Index 0.82%

S&P 500 index funds

U.S. Equity S & P 500 Individual Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
California Index U.S. Large Cap 0.09% TIAA-CREF S&P 500® Index Fund
Arizona Fidelity 500 Index Portfolio 0.11% Fidelity
Delaware Fidelity 500 Index Portfolio 0.11% Fidelity
Massachusetts Fidelity 500 Index Portfolio 0.11% Fidelity
New Hampshire Fidelity 500 Index Portfolio 0.11% Fidelity
Nevada Vanguard 500 Index Portfolio 0.15%
Wisconsin U.S. Equity 0.15% TIAA-CREF S&P 500® Index Fund
Ohio Vanguard 500 Index 0.19%
Utah Institutional Index 0.22% Vanguard
Kansas 500 Index 0.25% Vanguard Institutional Index Fund
West Virginia SMART529 500 Index 0.29% Vanguard
Maryland T. Rowe Price Equity Index 500 Fund 0.30%
Nebraska State Street S&P 500® 0.31%
Alabama Vanguard 500 Index 0.32%
Tennessee Vanguard 500 Index 0.35%
Maine Equity Index Portfolios 0.38% BlackRock S&P 500® Index Fund
New Jersey S&P 500 Index 529 Portfolio 0.40% JP Morgan Equity Index Fund

Miscellaneous funds

U.S. Equity Miscellaneous Individual Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
New York Growth Stock Index 0.16% Vanguard
New York Value Stock Index 0.16% Vanguard
Nevada Vanguard Growth Index 0.23%
Nevada Vanguard Value Index 0.23%
Ohio Vanguard Extended Market Index 0.27%
Wisconsin Social Choice 0.27% TIAA-CREF Social Choice Equity (indexed)
California Social Choice Investment 0.26% TIAA-CREF Social Choice Equity (indexed)
Tennessee DFA Enhanced U.S. Large Company Portfolio 0.35%
Nebraska Vanguard Extended Market 0.37%
Alabama Vanguard Extended Market 0.38%
Alabama Vanguard Value Index 0.39%
Alabama Vanguard Growth Index 0.39%
Oregon Social Choice 0.44% TIAA-CREF Social Choice Equity (indexed)
Nebraska iShares Russell 2000 Growth Index ETF 0.54%
Pennsylvania Social Index 0.62% Vanguard FTSE Social Index

Mid cap funds

U.S. Equity Mid-Cap Individual Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
New York Mid-Cap Stock Index 0.16% Vanguard
Nevada Vanguard Mid-Cap Index 0.21%
Utah Mid-Cap Index 0.26% Vanguard
Tennessee Vanguard Mid-Cap Growth 0.35%
Alabama Vanguard Mid-Cap Index 0.39%

Small cap funds

U.S. Equity Small-Cap Individual Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
New York Small-Cap Stock Index 0.16% Vanguard
Nevada Vanguard Small-Cap Index 0.21%
Utah Small-Cap Index 0.26% Vanguard
Wisconsin Small-Cap Index 0.28% TIAA-CREF Small-Cap Blend Index Fund
Alabama Vanguard Small-Cap Index 0.39%
Alabama Vanguard Small-Cap Value Index 0.53%
Alabama Vanguard Small-Cap Growth 0.53%

REIT funds

U.S. REIT Individual Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
Virginia REIT Index 0.28% Vanguard REIT Index
Nebraska Vanguard REIT 0.37%
Alabama Vanguard REIT Index 0.39%

International stocks

International Equity Individual Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
California Index International Equity Portfolio 0.12% TIAA-CREF
Delaware International Index Portfolio 0.15% Fidelity
Massachusetts International Index Portfolio 0.15% Fidelity
Arizona International Index Portfolio 0.15% Fidelity
New Hampshire International Index Portfolio 0.15% Fidelity
New York Developed Markets Index Portfolio 0.16% Vanguard
Nevada Vanguard Total International Stock Index 0.20%
Wisconsin International Equity 0.23% TIAA-CREF
Ohio Vanguard Developed Markets International Stock 0.27%
Utah Developed Market Index 0.27% Vanguard
Iowa Total International Stock Index Portfolio 0.28% Vanguard Total International Stock Index Fund
Utah Total International Stock Index 0.32% Vanguard
Virginia Total International Index (Vanguard) 0.33%
Tennessee DFA Large Cap International Portfolio 0.35%
Missouri Vanguard Total International Stock Index Portfolio 0.38%
Oregon International Equity Index 0.38% Vanguard Total International Stock
Nebraska State Street MSCI® ACWI Ex-U.S. 0.38%
Alabama Vanguard Total International Stock 0.40%
North Carolina Vanguard Total International Stock Index 0.44%
Montana Vanguard Total International Stock Index 0.88%

Fixed income

Total U.S bond market

Total U.S. Bond Market Individual Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
New York Bond Market Index 0.16% Vanguard
Wisconsin Bond Index 0.21% TIAA-CREF
California Index Bond Investment 0.15% TIAA-CREF Bond Index Fund
Kansas Total Bond Market Index 0.25% Vanguard
Utah Total Bond Market 0.25% Vanguard
Virginia Total Bond Index 0.25% Vanguard
Nevada Vanguard Total Bond Market Index 0.20%
Iowa Bond Index 0.28% Vanguard
Alabama Vanguard Total Bond Market 0.32%
Connecticut Index Fixed-Income 0.32% TIAA-CREF Bond Index
Missouri Vanguard Total Bond Market Index 0.32% Vanguard
Nebraska Vanguard Total Bond Market 0.34%
Indiana Bond Index 0.35% Vanguard
Tennessee Vanguard Total Bond Market 0.35%
Oregon Fixed Income Index 0.38% Dreyfus Bond Market Index
North Carolina Vanguard Total Bond Market Index 0.39%
Colorado Bond Index 0.39% Vanguard
Texas Fixed Income 0.70% Dreyfus Bond Market Index

Miscellaneous U.S. individual bond funds

U.S. Bond Miscellaneous Individual Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
Arizona Intermediate Treasury Index Portfolio 0.18% Fidelity
Delaware Intermediate Treasury Index Portfolio 0.18% Fidelity
Massachusetts Intermediate Treasury Index Portfolio 0.18% Fidelity
New Hampshire 0.18% Fidelity
Ohio Vanguard Income Portfolio 0.27%
Utah Short Term Investment Grade 0.27%
Missouri Vanguard Interest Accumulation 0.29% Vanguard Short-Term Reserves Account
Nebraska Vanguard Short Term Bond 0.34%
Nevada Vanguard High Yield Bond Portfolio 0.30%
Tennessee Vanguard Intermediate-Term Investment-Grade 0.35%
Tennessee Vanguard Intermediate-Term Treasury 0.35%
Alabama Vanguard Intermediate-Term Bond 0.37% Vanguard
Indiana Short-Term Bond Index 0.41%

Inflation-protected U.S. bonds

U.S. Inflation-Protected Individual Bond Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
New York Inflation-Protected Securities 0.16% Vanguard
Nevada Vanguard Inflation-Protected Securities 0.23%
Virginia Inflation-Protected Securities 0.27% Vanguard
Ohio Vanguard Inflation-Protected Bond 0.28%
Tennessee DFA Inflation-Protected Securities Portfolio 0.35%
Nebraska Vanguard Inflation-Protected Securities 0.36%
Alabama Vanguard Inflation-Protected Securities 0.37%
Pennsylvania Inflation-Protected Securities 0.53% Vanguard
Texas Inflation-Protected Bond 0.57% Vanguard Inflation-Protected Securities

International bond funds

International Bond Funds - Sorted by Expense Ratio
State Portfolio Name Cost (ER) Notes: Fund Provider and Information
Nebraska SPDR Barclays Capital Int'l Treasury Bond ETF 0.79%

Notes

  1. Five states and the District of Columbia currently restrict non-residents from investing in their 529 savings plan programs. These jurisdictions, in alphabetic order include:
    • District of Columbia, which only offers an S&P 500 index fund (State Street);
    • Louisiana, which provides indexed (Vanguard age-based and individual fund) portfolios;
    • New Jersey, which only offers an S&P 500 index fund (Franklin-Templeton);
    • Rhode Island, which offers three index funds (Total Market, Total International, and Total Bond), managed by Vanguard;
    • South Carolina, which provides mostly-indexed (Columbia age-based and static), as well as three individual index portfolios;
    • South Dakota, which offers no index options.
    Washington state does not offer a 529 savings plan.

External links

Google Documents spreadsheet of cost data