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Bogleheads® wiki
- Investing Advice Inspired by John Bogle


John Bogle at BH16.jpg
John Bogle
(1929 - 2019)
Forum posts
Welcome to the Bogleheads® wiki, a collaborative undertaking by members of the Bogleheads Community. This wiki is a reference resource for investors. Bogleheads emphasize starting early, living below one's means, regular saving, broad diversification, and sticking to one's investment plan.

If all this seems a bit overwhelming, relax and don't panic. A good place to begin is getting started. Returning visitors may be interested in our new pages.

Getting started

Today's featured article

An index fund is a fund that pools investors capital for the purpose of investing in securities, typically a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund (ETF), that aims to replicate the movements of an index of a specific financial market.

A well-managed index fund provides investors with a simple way to access such advantages as low costs, improved tax efficiency, style consistency and reduced manager risk. Investors should be mindful that not all index funds are low cost and that some indexes can be exploited by active investors when the indexes periodically reconstitute.

The key measure for accessing an index fund's efficiency is how well it tracks its benchmark index. (more...)

This week in financial history

August 19:

  • 1983 - The Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) made one of the largest municipal bond defaults (2.25 billion dollars) in U.S financial history on August 19, 1983. A 1988 settlement rendered some investors 40 cents on every dollar invested; other investors received 10 cents on the dollar. Sources: Bank asks Debt Payoff, NY Times; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS),

August 20:

  • 1996 - The Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 enacted the creation of the Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees Individual Retirement Account (SIMPLE), a contributory retirement plan for US small business employees. The Act (in Sec. 1806) also exempted a qualified State tuition program from taxation. These qualified tuition programs were to be called 529 plans, because 529 is the section of the Internal Revenue Code that governs their operation.

August 22:

August 23:

  • 1890 - The Brazilian Stock Exchange, the Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (São Paulo Stock Exchange), was founded on August 23, 1890 by Emilio Rangel Pestana. Source: FMI3560-01 Brazilian Stock Exchange

August 24:

  • 1857 - The failure of the New York branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company precipitated the Panic of 1857 Source:Panic of 1857
  • 1927 - Harry M. Markowitz, a 1990 winner of the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel and one of the creators of Modern Portfolio Theory, was born in Chicago, Illinois. Source:Harry M. Markowitz - Facts

Can't find what you're looking for?

Use the wiki's Search box. Or, start from a top-level overview using Site navigation. A complete article list is also available.

You can search or register to ask a question on the Bogleheads forum, or browse recent forum posts from the Bogleheads' home page. We're also on Facebook.

Our Canadian sister site, Financial Wisdom Forum, and its finiki, the Canadian financial wiki has a similar focus, many like-minded members, and may be of interest as well.

We also have a sister site in Spain, Bogleheads® España (en español).

Contributing to the wiki

Anyone can read the wiki. If you would like to edit it, you must first join the Bogleheads forum. Once you've joined, send a private message requesting access, and you can then become an editor. Information on editing the wiki is available on the left sidebar of every wiki page. Suggestions are welcome by posting in Suggestions for the Wiki.

If you see content in need of improvement, or a new page on a topic not yet covered, consider becoming an editor so that you can contribute to the site. If you find yourself writing a reply to a forum question that's been discussed a number of times before, consider creating a wiki page with the answer. Then you and others can reply to subsequent questions on that topic with a link and a quote of your text. That way, the Bogleheads Community both preserves our knowledge base and makes it more accessible, particularly to those using search engines.