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Peter Ponzo ("Pietro"), also known as "gummy"[1], created a large number of tutorials after his retirement from the University of Waterloo. It is an honour to provide an archive of that body of work, which is known as "gummy-stuff", and comprises a total of 466 tutorials on a variety of financial and non-financial topics. This article provides links to those archived tutorials for greater ease of access.

The tutorials table below contains all the original gummy'isms, i.e. spelling and grammar mistakes are gummy's. gummy's choices of colours and fonts have been removed to conform with Wiki standards. The table is presented in its original order.

There is no intention to Wikify the actual tutorials. Have you looked at the html source? We have.

Tip: Your browser search function (press Ctrl+F ) can be used to find specific topics of interest.

The tutorials

EVERYTHING ON THIS SITE [all the gummy-stuff material] MAY BE COPIED, CIRCULATED, DISTRIBUTED, IGNORED, RIDICULED, etc. without seeking my approval but please indicate the source (that's me)

Peter Ponzo, aka Gummy

Tutorial Comments
about these TUTORIALS Just some explanatory notes ...
the spreadsheets Where you can find them ...
Ichimoku Ichi-who?
Mortgages in Lower Slobbovia File:Smiley2.gif
MIRR That's IRR, fiddled.
IRR ... revisited
from Open to High How High, eh?
Flight Levels Calculating altitude from air pressure
the Blake Ritual Price Persistence, eh?
Bit Torrent Huh?
Drops: Close to Open Then what?
Stock Tracking Watch prices changes
Darvas boxes ... or gummy boxes?
Back to the Future Comparing to the past
Pillow Stock Put your $$ under a pillow (?)
Monthly Returns How'd they go?
Mutual Funds Canadian, eh?
OLED Organic LEDs
Milankovitch ... and his cycles.
a Time Machine Huh?
VDX Remember this guy?
moving CAGR How they change, eh?
Earthquakes How to measure 'em
BIG gains? When were they?
Searching for stock patterns Find your favourite!
Stock down, then up, then ... ... time to buy?
January predicts ... maybe
Jensen's alpha Best (?) performers
Avatar ... the movie
A stock screener ... sorta
Computers What I larned
S&P500 Average daily volume (?)
Fund Data Download interesting stuff
Investors ... ... how do they think?
Stock Indexes yet another one (or two?)
Photons Huh?
Halloween Scary ... or what?
Irrationality ... in decision-making
Lithium Huh?
Monthly returns Distributed ... how?
Central Limit Theorem A classy result!
Levy Another distribution. File:Smiley5.gif
a Coal Index Make your own Index
Guess! Guess the stock price. File:Smiley2.gif
Stocks & Ellipses Interesting containment, eh?
Correlation between 2 stocks Useful ... maybe?
Buying Strategies Invent your own!
Percentages Huh?
Gain-Loss Spread Another risk measure
Candlestick Combos Find 'em!
a coin flippin strategy Buy on Heads, Sell on Tails
Following the Trend a Buy & Sell ritual
Which Price to use? Open? Close? (1/3)Open + (2/3)Close?
Another candlestick a la Heikin-Ashi
Poker Odds Texas Hold'em, eh?
Standard Error(s) Trying to understand the K-Ratio File:Smiley5.gif
CORDIC stuff How do computers calculate?
some Calculators How long to double? Triple?File:Smiley2.gif
the High/Low Oscillator ... fiddled.
a Quiz to see if'n you been listening. File:Smiley2.gif
Dividends ... historical.
Musings (Brought on by old age?)
Exchange Rate ... historical.
200-day MA Simplest Moving Average
Turtle Trading What is it?
DOW futures What are they?
Smile! Do volatilities smile? File:Smiley6.gif
Volatilities ... for 30 stocks (or more).
Selling Calls Covered ... and out-of-the-money
Go to sleep ... and wake up to a profit. File:Smiley2.gif
Financial meltdown ... and what to buy?
Portfolio Evolution Random and Actual: compared
Missing the best days ... or the worst
Buy & Sell Do it yourself calculations File:Smiley-3.gif
Option things Necessary CAGR to make money?
Safe Withdrawal Rates Quick & Dirty
Stock Attractor regression line as a magnet
More on Correlations Correlation Babel ...
Market Musings a look at the past (and future?)
Candlesticks and Crashes Can you find a pattern?
Mkt Crashes ... a la Sornette
gEMA Moving Average Another moving average ???
Monte Carlo ... while you're investing
Gains & Losses The bestest and worstest.
the DOW vs the World Does the DOW influence world markets?
a Duffing oscillator Market waves ... and chaos.
Other Moving Averages There are jillions of 'em !!
Bonds? Stocks? Take your pick.
Predicting next month Is there a "best" predictor?
Path Volatility Different route, different volatility
the Chaikin Oscillator ... and Volume Flows
India Stocks ... an attempt to download from BSE or NSE.
ETFs ... and their Net Asset Value
Wavelets Build a time series with wavelets
penny Stocks They can be fun!!
DSO Daily Stock Oscillation
Predicting Highs & Lows The search for "cousins"
DSA#2 yet another Daily Stock Activity
Technical Analysis ... a few TA things, charted.
Historically Compare ... then predict the future. File:Smiley14.gif
ACB an Adjusted Cost Base calculator
Download Open, High, Low & Closing prices
ADX Average Directional Movement thing
CAGR & Drawdown Is there a relationship?
CAGR & Volatility Is there a relationship?
Correlations, correlations ... Which one to use?
DSA Daily Stock Activity (?)
Buy & Sell a Strategy that (sometimes) works
Volatility Pumping ... to Beat the Market, eh?
Portfolio Contests This is great fun! File:Smiley9.gif
Rent? ... or keep the house?
Risk, eh? What is this thing called "Risk"??
Drawdown It was worser in the past File:Smiley-3.gif
Historical Comparison Does the present look like the past?
Rebalancing Yes or No?
Return on Investments IRR or XIRR or what?
a Modified Bollinger Bollinger Bands revisited
Money Management How much to Buy ... or Sell?
Donchian Channels Identifying UP- and DOWN-trends
the Ulcer Index An ulcer-generating risk measure File:Smiley2.gif
Market Crashes Can they be predicted?
Fed Rates ... and the probability of a change
Expense Tracker ... might be a handy spreadsheet (?)
Multiple Downloads Download a bunch of stock prices
the Stock and the Pillow What allocation Pillow?
gDOW another DOW Index
Black Swans Huh?
DMA Displaced Moving Average
Sectors a la Fidelity
Kalman filter linear estimation
Asset volatility Good or Bad?
Stock Talk Listen to stock info.
Contour plots courtesy of FundTalker
Return Data ... to play with.
Backtesting A neato spreadsheet!
a bug? ... in XIRR
Buy or Rent? Take your pick!
downsideBeta downside Who?
Regression stuff Can you trust historical data?
R-squared ... and causal relationships.
Portfolio Tracker A simple tracker.
Sister Stocks Try to find 'em !
Correlations? between Prices or Returns?
ATP All Time Periods
Stock Charts Stock Charts: a collection File:Smiley14.gif
Drawdown ... as a measure of risk.
Short Interest Pretty selling-short pictures
Stochastic Dominance What is it?
Serial Correlation ... and Monte Carlo
Capital Gains & Dividends Tax considerations
Multiple download Make your own calculations!
Ito & Options What's a Call option worth ... in the future
Trade Log Keep track of your trades
g-Risk Another kind of "risk" File:Smiley2.gif
maxima ... for tougher Math !!
eigenMath Let it do your Math !!
Your Portfolio ... versus an Index.
Five year analysis Best days? Best months?
Correlations ... between 30 stocks.
What Returns? There are SO many of 'em !
Net Present Value What is it?
Multiple Returns ... and fictitious returns!
Toss 10,000 coins just to see what happens File:Smiley8.gif
Sortino Ratio versus Sharpe ratio
Trends and when they Ends File:Smiley9.gif
Loans and Newton's Method
Volatility and correlation with the Market
Buy in the Fall and Sell in the Spring
SAD worst months - by country
Canadian Returns and "safe" withdrawals.
Exchange Rates a spreadsheet.
Noise in stock returns How to measure it?
Stocks go Up & Down ... but how often?
DCA ... or all-at-once?
Predicting stock prices ... using the Laplace distribution.
30 stocks Download and construct a portfolio
Buy & Sell signals ... using candlesticks.
Monte Carlo Which returns to use?
TrafficLights When to Buy, Sell or Hold File:Smiley2.gif
Predicting Prices ... and other stuff
Average Returns Do you trust 'em?
Average True Range ... and a fiddled version
Moving Averages a spreadsheet to play with File:Smiley-3.gif
Gann charts ... or the Square of Nine
PCA Perfectly Confusing Anal... Principal Component Analysis
Risk, eh? What is it?
ODE a differential equation (?!)
Making Money (Just kidding!)
Market Down Probability of price decreases, eh?
Momentum An investment strategy (maybe)
MFI Money Flow Index
Velocity of Trades Moving to a price target (maybe)
Price Probabilities and related stuff
Pairs Trading The long and short of it File:Smiley.gif
A.I.M. A Buy & Sell strategy
Linear Regression ... for umpteen variables
Pivot Points and resistance and support levels
Time Weighted Returns What are they?
Covariances ... a spreadsheet
an option problem What's the annualized return?
Black-Litterman a model for asset allocation
Yield stuff Buy this ... or that?
MC stuff Monte Carlo for a dozen stocks
very safe withdrawals ... guaranteed! File:Smiley.gif
YTD ... and XIRR
DGIS Dividend Growth Investment Strategy
IRR ... and NPV
Stock Splits Then what?
re-Ordering annual returns and then what?
Perfect Correlation How to get it, eh?
Spearman Rank Correlation again!
Copulas ... more of 'em
Correlations and Copulas!
2 stocks and Monte Carlo
Raff regression to identify trends
Active or Passive Which Fund is better?
Sam retires ... and plays with Monte Carlo
PV a Present Value problem
Coin tossing ... and Reversion to the Mean
P&F charts Huh? Whazzat?
CEFs Closed End Funds
rMA Another moving average
Stock Data Download & Calculate
Returns formula Test your formula(s) !
PE Ratios and Bond Rates
Risk ... and volatility
Candlesticks Fun stuff!! File:Smiley.gif
Hikkake and candlestick
Risk ≠ Standard Deviation !!
Deletions Deleting the best and worst days
Hurst exponent What is it?
Implied Volatility versus Historical
RS indicator ... and other ratios
What's hot? and what's Not?
EMA ... the magic formula (?)
Time Diversification What is it?
reBalancing ... good or bad?
Aroon Indicator When is the stock gonna go up (or down)?
Templeton 22 investment maxims
Doom & Gloom Is it justified?
options in the money
Volatility and the square-root-of-time
gRANK ... revisited
Colouring ... financial things
hedging to reduce volatility, eh?
Johnson curves ... and probability distributions
regret What is it !&$%#@?
the Stutzer Index to rank a portfolio
YTD ... and XIRR
Buy an annuity A good idea ... or not.
Deja vu ... all over again
Coherent Risk What is it!
Maximum Withdrawals ... more on this stuff
world's worst investor ... that's ME!
E10-P stuff ... more on this stuff
E10/P E10/P and Safe Withdrawal Rate(s)
TV stuff about them new fangled TVs
Seasonality Do prices depend upon the season?
Nobel Prize ... for 2003
myPortfolio Well ... your portfolio
a Contest a Portfolio Contest spreadsheet
Weekly Stuff stock stuff, weekly
Options ... and Volatility
Stock Stuff stock ... stuff
PreMarket ... and predicting the opening price
Fat Tails ... and how to get 'em
Parabolas fitting them to stock prices
Bonds ... and Interest Rates
Returns and Volatility ... the effect of volatility on CAGR
gRANK ... revisited
Asset Correlation ... and diversification
a Game Play the Efficient Frontier game File:Smiley.gif
reSampling Efficiency reSampling the Efficient Frontier
Omega ... a characteristic of distributions: Gain / Loss
Pensions ... and Life Annuities
Liquidity Amivest Liquidity Ratio
Put Options What's the Break Even ?
XIRR XIRR and ROR stuff
Approximation approximation to Normal/Lognormal distributions
FOREX Trading in Foreign Exchanges
Monte Carlo Should we believe MC predictions?
forecasting An attempt at forecasting File:Smiley.gif
GMS Geomagnetic Storms (and the markets)
sorta VA Variations on Value Averaging and DCA
SWR More on Safe Withdrawal Rates (!)
gDX Variations on a theme
Constant Returns When are they better?
Put/Call Ratios Do they predict market movement?
Bayes' Theorem ... and (maybe) the Market
reordering What happens when you reorder returns?
Covariance ... and Correlation and R-squared stuff
SWR "Safe" withdrawal rates (again)
FOREX Download Foreign Exchange Rates from Yahoo
Stock stuff Get a bunch of data on a stock
beta Don't trust it (?)
CAGR Annualized Returns.
VDX VDX ... and other stuff
Stocks and Bonds What's the meaning of a "best" mix?
EPS Forecasting EPS ... maybe
Another Distribution ... with fatter tails File:Smiley.gif
Zweig's Rule Zweig's 4% (and other) Rules
Return Distributions Generating Return Distributions
WWW A (wee) history of the World Wide Web
Future Prices Predicting future prices :^)
Wilshire 5K / GDP Yet another ratio to see if the market is overpriced.
Call Options Which to buy ?
Bernoulli Lift, on an airplane wing
download download a webpage to Excel
Bachelier the Father of Financial Stuff
to Mars launch an Explorer to Mars :^)
forecasting Predicting moving averages etc.
XIRR, not Dietz Don't do the Dietz!
DCA vs LumpSum DCA over 12 months, eh?
Williams %R Buy & Sell a la Williams
Beta Beta and the "Best line" fit to data
Spearman Correlation Looking for common trends
Bollinger About Bollinger Bands
Special Sum Volatility of the sum of n stock prices
gRANK Assorted PEG-type Ratios
Huh? How many trades to win?
Gold! Gold: is it cheeep?
RTM Reversion to the Mean (?)
Oktoberfest October ... again!
Another strategy A withdrawal strategy.
Buying for less Effect on your annual return.
Fractals Fascinating stuff!
XIRR Comments on calculating portfolio returns.
a Coverup? ... interesting questions ...
Cointegration Identifying trends & stuff
Monte Carlo ... random musings
a Small World ... ain't it?
Relativity Einstein says ...
the DOW goes up (down) How often does the DOW go up N days-in-a-row?
Inflation incorporating inflation
Monte Carlo a simple-minded Monte Carlo spreadsheet
Cash in an Annuity Converting (some) annuity to a lump sum payment?
CPI Inflation and REAL returns
Bond Convexity Whatzzat?
Standard Deviation SD of Returns vs SD of Prices
Reordering Returns ... then what?
SWRs Safe Withdrawal Rates (again!)
Portfolio Track your portfolio investments
Sharpe Ratio Maximize allocations a la Sharpe Ratio ... maybe!
Retiring? List your expenses
Safe Withdrawals This topic ... again!
Median Returns Calculate the median return (maybe)
Sam and Sally Die early ... and live it up!
VA More Value Averaging (!)
Ito Calculus Random stuff: stochastic processes, Brownian motion, Black-Scholes ...
Simple Download Download data
Derivatives What are they?
Withdrawals Max Rate of Withdrawal ... and Life Expectancy
Miscellany Some financial calculation rituals ...
Asset Allocation ... and John Nash
Sector Rotation Is there a good strategy?
RESPs Education Saving Plans
Value at Risk Whatzzat?
Reincarnation A strategy to make a killing ...
Do the Dietz Modified Dietz Return calculations.
Asset Allocation The "best" mix ... maybe.
Stock/Bond ratio The "best" mix ... maybe.
PEG Ratios What do they mean?
Elliott Waves Ride the Waves !
Crashes Market Waves ... and crashes !
Waves Finding periodicity in stock prices ... or NOT
Kurtosis Skew and Kurtosis - whattzat?
Rebalance-when? Is there a best time?
Santa Claus Does St. Nick have a rally?
Kelly Ratio How much to invest in your next trade?
Moving Averages Find the best (maybe :^)
ODEs Differential Equations
Distribution Stock Returns ... Normal? Lognormal? What?
Stock Prices Distribution of Stock Prices (maybe)
Ratio Call Writing Write Calls, Buy the Stock
a Magic Sum It's magic, eh?
Approximations Approximations to portfolio evolution.
Coin tossing Toss a coin ... and get your return!
Return Predictor Using historical returns as predictors
Rebalancing Bonus The bonus in rebalancing (?)
Portfolio Blues DOWN she goes, UP she goes ...
Bond Calculators Play with a calculator or three
Allocations Play with (historical) allocations
Download data a neat way to get Yahoo data
Option stuff ... just a comment or two ...
Monte, again Monte Carlo ... again!?
Bond Ladders What kind of financial equipment is it?
DCA and VA Dollar Cost and Value averaging
CAPM a Capital Asset Pricing Model
Dividend Discount What price, stock?
Asset Concentration Should you concentrate on one Asset Class?
Utility Theory Your personal optimization?
Option Strategies What's the probability of losing?
Life Expectancy ... and Life Annuities
Latin Hypercube another method to sample returns
Stock Evolution the Binomial Distribution ... and stock growth
Black-Scholes the Black-Scholes option pricing formula
Risks & Rewards Another Risk / Reward Ratio
Risk/Reward Ratio(s) How many are there?
Try an annuity Should you buy an annuity?
Save for Retirement Part II ... it ain't easy !!
Maximum Withdrawals the Maximum Rate of Withdrawal is ... what?
Sensible Withdrawals Safer withdrawals ... and more Monte Carlo.
Asset Correlation Is correlation good or bad?
P/E & Bond Rates? Is the market over-priced?
Growth vs Value Optimal (golden) Ratios
Growth vs Value Slice and Dice ...
Bonds Some stuff on Bonds
another Frontier ... to minimize Risk
Efficient Frontier ... to minimize Volatility
Passive or Active MFs Take your pick!
Another distribution Take your pick!
Equal-weighted Indices Better or worser?
Monte Carlo simulation a spreadsheet by the Count of Monte Carlo
Normal/Lognormal Which is the better fit to market returns?
Random? Are the markets random?
Volume weighting include VOLUME in Moving Averages: ADX=>VDX
R-squared and Best Fit Covariance, Correlations and Beta.
Mutual Fund figures How does YOUR gain compare to the Mutual Fund - or The DARK SIDE of DCA
Rotation Rotating Portfolio components.
Life Expectancy Drop dead ... when?
a Strategy a Strategy to avoid big losses ... maybe.
Invest Early Start investing early ... for your retirement.
Bond Yields an Inverted Yield curve predicts a recession?
Re-Balancing Sell the good stuff to buy the bad.
the Rule of 72 How long to double, triple?
Reversion/Regression Does Reversion to the Mean apply to the market?
P/E ratio What's P/E ... and how to get one for an Index?
Stocks & Bonds Is there a "best" mix?
Annualized Return How to calculate it.
Rate of Return How to calculate it accurately ... and Dietzly.
Mean, Annualized & SD What's the relation?
Average Gains Think "Annualized", not "Average".
a Random Walk What is it?
Save for Retirement? What fraction of your salary should you save?
Safe(?) Withdrawals You're retired: What's a Safe Withdrawal rate?
about Risk? Risk, Volatility and Standard Deviation.
What's RISK? Risk Measures ... or "A Mathematician's Folly"
a Break Even Strategy Trying to Break Even in the market :^)
Market Indexes How to calculate 'em.
Best and Worst Months The effect of missing the "best" or "worst" months?
OR Market Timing: good or evil?
Portfolio Growth/Decay How does your Portfolio grow:
Constant & Random gains.
Value Averaging How does it compare to DCA: Dollar Cost Averaging?
Excel charting A spreadsheet: how I chart.
HTML Praxis Hyper Text Markup Language: The language of the Net.
HTML overview The language of the Net: a summary
Technical Analysis Investing ... by the charts.
Lessons in C What I larned about this $!@*&% computer language.
Years to Zero How long will your portfolio last? (the MATH)
Mortgages How much do you pay? (the MATH)
Life Annuities How much do you get? (Approximately!)
Volume-weighted Averaging The average price paid for a stock.
a Wave Theory Do stock prices have periodicity?
Adjusted Cost Base How to calculate this guy.
LIF Maxima How to calculate this guy.
Leveraging Borrow to invest? How much does it cost? (the MATH)
Bond Duration What is it?! (the MATH)
Invest inside or outside an RRSP (the MATH)
Biotech Stock Valuation How much is a biotech stock worth?
Best Fit Fitting "the best" straight line to some data.
DCA Part 1 Dollar Cost Averaging.
DCA Part 2 Dollar Cost Averaging ... for masochists.
Geosynchronous satellites Where are they?
the DOW index How now?
Computers a (wee) History of Computers
the Mathies hardly a tutorial ... but wee bios of famous mathematicians.
Calculus a course.
about Call Options What I larned 'bout trading in Options.
Vedic math A fascinating way to do math

Buying a CD

It's been several years since Gummy mailed the first gummy-stuff CD. Because the website has changed dramatically since then, he has had a few requests for the latest version, from previous buyers. Some fella said "he'd like to buy a CD when I'm finished". To which Gummy replied "I said I'd be finished when I drop dead ... but then, so would gummy-stuff."

Gummy's not dead yet but he has decided that the easiest way to provide the latest version of the site to interested parties is to have my friends at the Financial Webring host an archive of the site. If you want the whole thing in compressed form, look at gummy-stuff zip file.


  1. Pietro, that's me, viewed November 8, 2012.