Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

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KBREAMK
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Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Tue May 07, 2019 8:45 am

My small business has chosen to move our 401k plan to a new provider. The transition will be complete in a few weeks. The new provider offers many low cost index funds... unfortunately the total stock market and total bond market funds aren't available so setting up a 3-fund like portfolio won't be as straight forward. Here are my options... what funds would you choose if you wanted to create a standard Boglehead 3-fund like portfolio? Thanks in advance for your help!

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Triple digit golfer
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by Triple digit golfer » Tue May 07, 2019 8:51 am

Using rough numbers here:

80% 500 index and 20% small cap index for U.S. equities.
80% developed markets and 20% emerging markets index for international equities.
100% intermediate term bond index for bonds.

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Tue May 07, 2019 9:19 am

Triple digit golfer wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 8:51 am
Using rough numbers here:

80% 500 index and 20% small cap index for U.S. equities.
80% developed markets and 20% emerging markets index for international equities.
100% intermediate term bond index for bonds.
Thanks. So, assuming a preferred 75% stock / 25% bond AA... does this look about right?

US Equities
iShares 500 Index: 44%
Vanguard Small Cap Index Fund Admiral: 11%

International Equities
Vanguard Developed Markets Index - Adm: 16%
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index-Adm: 4%

Bonds
Vanguard Intermediate Term Bond Index: 25%

3funder
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by 3funder » Tue May 07, 2019 9:34 am

TexasRon wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 9:19 am
Triple digit golfer wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 8:51 am
Using rough numbers here:

80% 500 index and 20% small cap index for U.S. equities.
80% developed markets and 20% emerging markets index for international equities.
100% intermediate term bond index for bonds.
Thanks. So, assuming a preferred 75% stock / 25% bond AA... does this look about right?

US Equities
iShares 500 Index: 44%
Vanguard Small Cap Index Fund Admiral: 11%

International Equities
Vanguard Developed Markets Index - Adm: 16%
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index-Adm: 4%

Bonds
Vanguard Intermediate Term Bond Index: 25%
Sure, that's fine.

lakpr
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by lakpr » Tue May 07, 2019 1:24 pm

That 4% allocation to Emerging Markets index fund is really not going to make any difference in either risk or return, so you might as well go full 20% into Developed Markets fund. Just one less fund to worry about.

Triple digit golfer
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by Triple digit golfer » Tue May 07, 2019 1:27 pm

TexasRon wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 9:19 am
Triple digit golfer wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 8:51 am
Using rough numbers here:

80% 500 index and 20% small cap index for U.S. equities.
80% developed markets and 20% emerging markets index for international equities.
100% intermediate term bond index for bonds.
Thanks. So, assuming a preferred 75% stock / 25% bond AA... does this look about right?

US Equities
iShares 500 Index: 44%
Vanguard Small Cap Index Fund Admiral: 11%

International Equities
Vanguard Developed Markets Index - Adm: 16%
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index-Adm: 4%

Bonds
Vanguard Intermediate Term Bond Index: 25%
That'll work if you want about 27% of your equities to be international.

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Tue May 07, 2019 4:12 pm

Triple digit golfer wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 1:27 pm
TexasRon wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 9:19 am
Triple digit golfer wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 8:51 am
Using rough numbers here:

80% 500 index and 20% small cap index for U.S. equities.
80% developed markets and 20% emerging markets index for international equities.
100% intermediate term bond index for bonds.
Thanks. So, assuming a preferred 75% stock / 25% bond AA... does this look about right?

US Equities
iShares 500 Index: 44%
Vanguard Small Cap Index Fund Admiral: 11%

International Equities
Vanguard Developed Markets Index - Adm: 16%
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index-Adm: 4%

Bonds
Vanguard Intermediate Term Bond Index: 25%
That'll work if you want about 27% of your equities to be international.
Good point. Is there a suggested Boglehead recommendation for how much international one should hold in the equity side of things?

retiredjg
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by retiredjg » Tue May 07, 2019 4:31 pm

TexasRon wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 4:12 pm
Good point. Is there a suggested Boglehead recommendation for how much international one should hold in the equity side of things?
Somewhere between 0% and about 50%.

As you can see, there is no consensus on this. Vanguard likes 40%. Some people like market weight (probably near 45 to 50%). Others like less (20 to 30%). And some like (like Jack Bogle) none.

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Duckie
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by Duckie » Tue May 07, 2019 4:39 pm

TexasRon wrote:Is there a suggested Boglehead recommendation for how much international one should hold in the equity side of things?
Vanguard has found between 20% and 40% of stocks in international to be the "sweet spot". See the Vanguard paper link and the discussion. I usually split the difference and recommend 30% of stocks.

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by Jordan4FI » Tue May 07, 2019 4:45 pm

make it a 3 fund and keep it really simple, 500 Index, Developed Market, and Inter. Bonds, just pick you AA of each and let it ride, the 500 is [very close to -- moderator oldcomputerguy] the total market anyway..

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by vineviz » Tue May 07, 2019 4:46 pm

lakpr wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 1:24 pm
That 4% allocation to Emerging Markets index fund is really not going to make any difference in either risk or return, so you might as well go full 20% into Developed Markets fund. Just one less fund to worry about.
Or just put all 20% in the emerging markets fund. Same simplicity, with better diversification.
"Far more money has been lost by investors preparing for corrections than has been lost in corrections themselves." ~~ Peter Lynch

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Taylor Larimore
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by Taylor Larimore » Tue May 07, 2019 4:56 pm

Is there a suggested Boglehead recommendation for how much international one should hold in the equity side of things
TexasRon:

How Much International? A Suggestion.

Best wishes.
Taylor
"Simplicity is the master key to financial success." -- Jack Bogle

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by abuss368 » Tue May 07, 2019 6:25 pm

TexasRon wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 4:12 pm
Triple digit golfer wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 1:27 pm
TexasRon wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 9:19 am
Triple digit golfer wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 8:51 am
Using rough numbers here:

80% 500 index and 20% small cap index for U.S. equities.
80% developed markets and 20% emerging markets index for international equities.
100% intermediate term bond index for bonds.
Thanks. So, assuming a preferred 75% stock / 25% bond AA... does this look about right?

US Equities
iShares 500 Index: 44%
Vanguard Small Cap Index Fund Admiral: 11%

International Equities
Vanguard Developed Markets Index - Adm: 16%
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index-Adm: 4%

Bonds
Vanguard Intermediate Term Bond Index: 25%
That'll work if you want about 27% of your equities to be international.
Good point. Is there a suggested Boglehead recommendation for how much international one should hold in the equity side of things?
Estimates vary but typically you will read zero to market weight. Market of course fluctuates by the day but is approximately 50%.

Vanguard investment experts recommended 20% many years ago. They eventually increased to 30% and ultimately to the present 40% of equities.
John C. Bogle: "You simply do not need to put your money into 8 different mutual funds!" | | Disclosure: Three Fund Portfolio + U.S. & International REITs

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Wed May 08, 2019 8:32 am

Taylor Larimore wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 4:56 pm
Is there a suggested Boglehead recommendation for how much international one should hold in the equity side of things
TexasRon:

How Much International? A Suggestion.

Best wishes.
Taylor
Thank you, Taylor. 20% sounds like a good number to me! As an aside, I hope to shake your hand at the upcoming Bogleheads conference! Thank you for all you have done and continue to do.

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Wed May 08, 2019 8:41 am

Thank you to all for your advice! This forum is a true blessing. One follow-up question related to US Equities. Would I be wise to add some mid cap exposure like VIMAX? Right now I have the iShares 500 and the Vanguard Small Cap Index. Scroll to the first post for all of my options.

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by vineviz » Wed May 08, 2019 8:46 am

TexasRon wrote:
Wed May 08, 2019 8:41 am
Thank you to all for your advice! This forum is a true blessing. One follow-up question related to US Equities. Would I be wise to add some mid cap exposure like VIMAX? Right now I have the iShares 500 and the Vanguard Small Cap Index. Scroll to the first post for all of my options.
No, if you have large cap and small cap the mid caps are redundant.
"Far more money has been lost by investors preparing for corrections than has been lost in corrections themselves." ~~ Peter Lynch

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by deltaneutral83 » Wed May 08, 2019 9:16 am

TexasRon wrote:
Wed May 08, 2019 8:41 am
Thank you to all for your advice! This forum is a true blessing. One follow-up question related to US Equities. Would I be wise to add some mid cap exposure like VIMAX? Right now I have the iShares 500 and the Vanguard Small Cap Index. Scroll to the first post for all of my options.
This is as simple as it gets, 80% Large/20% Small, especially with those nice ER's. I take care of INTL in other accounts to keep things as simple as possible. Recall that you don't have to build out your exact AA in each account, just overall.

retiredjg
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by retiredjg » Wed May 08, 2019 9:28 am

You could add mid-caps but you don't "need" to add mid-caps. There are mid-cap stocks in both the 500 index and in the small cap index, so you are not really missing as much as it seems.

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Wed May 08, 2019 10:20 am

Here's the revised portfolio where I adjusted my international exposure down a bit.

US Equities
iShares 500 Index: 48%
Vanguard Small Cap Index Fund Admiral: 12%

International Equities
Vanguard Developed Markets Index - Adm: 12%
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index-Adm: 3%

Bonds
Vanguard Intermediate Term Bond Index: 25%

For the fun of it I ran this through the old Portfolio Visualizer to see "what if..." even though I know it doesn't guarantee future results!

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Taylor Larimore
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by Taylor Larimore » Wed May 08, 2019 10:51 am

TexasRon:

Forget "3% Emerging Markets." 3% is meaningless and only adds clutter. Consider Total International which includes Emerging Markets.

Read my Simplicity link below.

Best wishes.
Taylor
"Simplicity is the master key to financial success." -- Jack Bogle

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Wed May 08, 2019 10:56 am

Taylor Larimore wrote:
Wed May 08, 2019 10:51 am
TexasRon:

Forget "3% Emerging Markets." 3% is meaningless and only adds clutter. Consider Total International which includes Emerging Markets.

Read my Simplicity link below.

Best wishes.
Taylor
Thanks, Taylor. Below are my 401k choices. Are you suggesting I just use the Vanguard International Explorer fund?

DFA Intermediate Govt Fixed Income
Vanguard Intermediate Term Bond Index
DFA Inflation Protected Securities I
DFA US Large Value Instl
iShares 500 Index
Vanguard Large Cap Growth Index -Adm
Vanguard Mid Cap Value Index - Admiral
Vanguard Mid Cap Index Fund Admiral
Vanguard Mid Cap Growth Index - Adm
DFA US Small Value Funds Instl
Vanguard Small Cap Index Fund Admiral
Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index - Admiral
Vanguard Developed Markets Index - Adm
Vanguard International Explorer
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index-Adm
DFA Emerging Markets Small Cap I
Vanguard REIT Index - Admiral
DFA International Real Estate Securities - Inst
Vanguard Energy Index Admiral

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ruralavalon
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by ruralavalon » Wed May 08, 2019 11:04 am

Jordan4FI wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 4:45 pm
make it a 3 fund and keep it really simple, 500 Index, Developed Market, and Inter. Bonds, just pick you AA of each and let it ride, the 500 is damn near the total market anyway..
That is my suggestion as well:
1) iShares 500 Index Fund (WFSPX) ER 0.04%;
2) Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Admiral Shares (VTMGX) ER 0.07%; and
3) Vanguard Intermediate-term Bond Index Fund Admiral Shares (VBILX) ER 0.07%.

Since the creation of the first total stock market index fund in 1992 (27 years ago) S&P index funds have had almost identical performance compared to the total stock market index fund.

A 3-4% allocation to emerging markets is too small to have a significant impact on the performance of the overall portfolio.

I prefer total market index funds where available. However in a 401k that lacks total market index funds, it is not necessary in my opinion to assemble a group of funds slavishly attempting to imitate the missing total market index funds.
Last edited by ruralavalon on Wed May 08, 2019 11:13 am, edited 2 times in total.
"Everything should be as simple as it is, but not simpler." - Albert Einstein | Wiki article link:Getting Started

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Wed May 08, 2019 11:10 am

ruralavalon wrote:
Wed May 08, 2019 11:04 am
Jordan4FI wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 4:45 pm
make it a 3 fund and keep it really simple, 500 Index, Developed Market, and Inter. Bonds, just pick you AA of each and let it ride, the 500 is damn near the total market anyway..
That is my suggestion as well:
1) iShares 500 Index Fund;
2) Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Admiral Shares;
3) Vanguard Intermediate-term Bond Index Fund Admiral Shares.

Since the creation of the first total stock market index fund in 1992 (27 years ago) S&P index funds have had almost identical performance compared to the total stock market index fund.

A 3-4% allocation to emerging markets is too small to have a significant impact on the performance of the overall portfolio.

I prefer total market index funds where available. However in a 401k that lacks total market index funds, it is not necessary in my opinion to assemble a group of funds slavishly attempting to imitate the missing total market index funds.
Thank you! Dumb question... but what's the difference between the Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Admiral Share & the Vanguard International Explorer fund?

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by ruralavalon » Wed May 08, 2019 11:24 am

TexasRon wrote:
Wed May 08, 2019 11:10 am
ruralavalon wrote:
Wed May 08, 2019 11:04 am
Jordan4FI wrote:
Tue May 07, 2019 4:45 pm
make it a 3 fund and keep it really simple, 500 Index, Developed Market, and Inter. Bonds, just pick you AA of each and let it ride, the 500 is damn near the total market anyway..
That is my suggestion as well:
1) iShares 500 Index Fund;
2) Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Admiral Shares;
3) Vanguard Intermediate-term Bond Index Fund Admiral Shares.

Since the creation of the first total stock market index fund in 1992 (27 years ago) S&P index funds have had almost identical performance compared to the total stock market index fund.

A 3-4% allocation to emerging markets is too small to have a significant impact on the performance of the overall portfolio.

I prefer total market index funds where available. However in a 401k that lacks total market index funds, it is not necessary in my opinion to assemble a group of funds slavishly attempting to imitate the missing total market index funds.
Thank you! Dumb question... but what's the difference between the Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Admiral Share & the Vanguard International Explorer fund?
Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX) ER 0.39% is an actively managed fund (not an index fund), has a higher expense ratio, and has limited diversification concentrating on stocks of mid-cap and small-cap growth companies in developed markets. Morningstar, VINEX, portfolio tab.

Vanguard Developed Markets Index Admiral (VTMGX) ER 0.07% is an index fund, has a very low expense ratio, and is much more diversified investing in stocks of all types (value, blend and growth) and sizes (large-cap, mid-cap and small-cap) of companies in developed markets. Morningstar, VTMGX, portfolio tab.

Both omit emerging markets.
"Everything should be as simple as it is, but not simpler." - Albert Einstein | Wiki article link:Getting Started

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Taylor Larimore
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by Taylor Larimore » Wed May 08, 2019 2:32 pm

Thank you! Dumb question... but what's the difference between the Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Admiral Share & the Vanguard International Explorer fund?
TexasRon:

Not a dumb question.

You will find the answer to your question by going to the Vanguard website and typing in the name of any fund or ticker symbol into the "Search" page. Then go to "Portfolio" to get your answer.

Best wishes.
Taylor
"Simplicity is the master key to financial success." -- Jack Bogle

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Mon May 13, 2019 4:10 pm

Thanks for all of the advice folks. Much appreciated. I just made my elections while waiting for the money to arrive from old 401k provider. Decided to go with 70/30 asset allocation.

iShares S&P 500 Index (WFSPX): 55%
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Admiral (VTMGX): 15%
Vanguard Interm-Term Bond Index Adm (VBILX): 30%

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Taylor Larimore
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by Taylor Larimore » Mon May 13, 2019 4:53 pm

TexasRon wrote:
Mon May 13, 2019 4:10 pm
Thanks for all of the advice folks. Much appreciated. I just made my elections while waiting for the money to arrive from old 401k provider. Decided to go with 70/30 asset allocation.

iShares S&P 500 Index (WFSPX): 55%
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Admiral (VTMGX): 15%
Vanguard Interm-Term Bond Index Adm (VBILX): 30%
TexasRon:

You have made a good decision. The Three-Fund Portfolio make investing easy.

Congratulations and best wishes!

Taylor
"Simplicity is the master key to financial success." -- Jack Bogle

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by welderwannabe » Mon May 13, 2019 5:05 pm

Great choices in that 401k. Nice plan.
I am not an investment professional, but I did stay at a Holiday Inn Express last night.

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by ruralavalon » Tue May 14, 2019 9:45 am

TexasRon wrote:
Mon May 13, 2019 4:10 pm
Thanks for all of the advice folks. Much appreciated. I just made my elections while waiting for the money to arrive from old 401k provider. Decided to go with 70/30 asset allocation.

iShares S&P 500 Index (WFSPX): 55%
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Admiral (VTMGX): 15%
Vanguard Interm-Term Bond Index Adm (VBILX): 30%
That is a reasonable plan.
"Everything should be as simple as it is, but not simpler." - Albert Einstein | Wiki article link:Getting Started

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Wed May 15, 2019 1:39 pm

Quick update. I just had my "onboarding" call with the new 401k provider's "advisor." No cost for it and I don't have to talk to him again. His comments were these 3 funds looked good but, in their opinion, someone at my age (45) should have 0% in bonds and should have 100% in equities split between domestic and international.

Don't worry... I am not listening to their advice... especially since when I asked him why they didn't offer VTSAX (Total Stock Market) he didn't know what the fund was. My guess is this was a junior dude assigned to small company plans told to read from a script.

Needless to say I wasn't impressed. Long live the Bogleheads!

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KyleAAA » Wed May 15, 2019 1:47 pm

Wow, your 401k is fantastic. One of the best I've seen. You even have DFA small value and DFA small emerging market funds. I would tilt, tilt, tilt.

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by retiredjg » Wed May 15, 2019 2:24 pm

TexasRon wrote:
Wed May 15, 2019 1:39 pm
Don't worry... I am not listening to their advice... especially since when I asked him why they didn't offer VTSAX (Total Stock Market) he didn't know what the fund was. My guess is this was a junior dude assigned to small company plans told to read from a script.
Probably does have something of a script. You should know though that work plans like this tend to have 500 index and not total stock funds. This is very common.

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Wed May 15, 2019 2:31 pm

retiredjg wrote:
Wed May 15, 2019 2:24 pm
TexasRon wrote:
Wed May 15, 2019 1:39 pm
Don't worry... I am not listening to their advice... especially since when I asked him why they didn't offer VTSAX (Total Stock Market) he didn't know what the fund was. My guess is this was a junior dude assigned to small company plans told to read from a script.
Probably does have something of a script. You should know though that work plans like this tend to have 500 index and not total stock funds. This is very common.
I just got an email back that they will be adding VTSAX so I will be able to use that!

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by caklim00 » Wed May 15, 2019 6:27 pm

I'm jealous of that plan, personally I would be using DFA US SCV and DFA EM SC. Its odd that there isn't a DFA Intl SC option there.

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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by Taylor Larimore » Wed May 15, 2019 7:34 pm

KyleAAA wrote:
Wed May 15, 2019 1:47 pm
Wow, your 401k is fantastic. One of the best I've seen. You even have DFA small value and DFA small emerging market funds. I would tilt, tilt, tilt.
TexasRon:

Stick to a Total Market Index Fund for simplicity, low-cost and usually better returns:

--------------------------------------------------5 years----10 Years----15 Years
Vanguard Total US Stock Market (VTSAX) 11.18% ----15.34%------9.24%
DFA Small Value (DFSVX)---------------------4.85%-----13.50% ------8.10%
DFA Emerging Markets (VEMAX)-------------3.91%-------7.78%------8.36%

Source: Morningstar

Best wishes.
Taylor
"Simplicity is the master key to financial success." -- Jack Bogle

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KBREAMK
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Re: Please Help me Create a 3-Fund Portfolio with these Index Funds

Post by KBREAMK » Thu May 16, 2019 9:20 am

Taylor Larimore wrote:
Wed May 15, 2019 7:34 pm
KyleAAA wrote:
Wed May 15, 2019 1:47 pm
Wow, your 401k is fantastic. One of the best I've seen. You even have DFA small value and DFA small emerging market funds. I would tilt, tilt, tilt.
TexasRon:

Stick to a Total Market Index Fund for simplicity, low-cost and usually better returns:

--------------------------------------------------5 years----10 Years----15 Years
Vanguard Total US Stock Market (VTSAX) 11.18% ----15.34%------9.24%
DFA Small Value (DFSVX)---------------------4.85%-----13.50% ------8.10%
DFA Emerging Markets (VEMAX)-------------3.91%-------7.78%------8.36%

Source: Morningstar

Best wishes.
Taylor
Yes, Taylor. I am sticking with the 3-fund portfolio. The only tweaks I plan to make are to rebalance on my birthday or when my AA goes off by 5% or more.

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