I think this is misleading.
The objective of the entire TLS handshake is to ultimately agree on a single-use, disposable, symmetric key with which all the traffic that follows is encrypted.
It works like this (simplified): browser contacts https:// server and the server provides its signed certificate and the ciphers it is willing to support. This is all happening using the PKI and [hopefully] perfect forward secrecy (elliptic curves). The browser checks its certificate store to make sure the server's certificate was signed by a trusted root CA or intermediary and chooses one of the ciphers offered by the https:// server. At that point things are asymmetrical (hence the necessity for 2048 bit or stronger keys) but now they transition to using an agreed upon single-use, disposable, symmetric key (at least 128 bit and preferably 256 bit key strength) for the rest of the session.
Nothing magical about it. It is really quite elegant (and very fast) to watch the process in action.
If a VPN is involved, the process is like that above - the initial setup (VPN client -> VPN server) is done asymmetrically and quickly shifts to a single-use, disposable, symmetric key for the rest of the connection.
Another poster mentioned that password salting has been the industry standard for 20 years. The latest, "strong" suggestion is to use password salting, peppering, stretching & hashing. Using that technique with, for example, a 20+ character, complex password it is theorized that all the combined supercomputer power on earth couldn't break the pw during the lifetime of the universe. And rainbow tables are useless.
(I'm not an expert but I read a lot)