In short, they represent that:
In other words, in 1918-1919, the U.S. cities that shut down businesses, quarantined people, and didn't allow large gatherings (and also did face masks) had fewer deaths and ultimately better long-term economic results than cities that didn't."Our analysis yields two main insights.
"First, we find that areas that were more severely affected by the 1918 Flu Pandemic see a sharp and persistent decline in real economic activity. Second, we find that early and extensive NPIs (Non Pharmaceutical Interventions) have no adverse effect on local economic outcomes.
"On the contrary, cities that intervened earlier and more aggressively experience a relative increase in real economic activity after the pandemic. Altogether, our findings suggest that pandemics can have substantial economic costs, and NPIs cannot only be means to lower mortality but may also have economic merits by mitigating the adverse impact of the pandemic. ..."
Between 500k and 675k of the citizenry died in '18-'19. (There were three viral "waves") This was when the U.S. population was 102 million. There was little federal direction or coordination back then, kind of like now.
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm ... id=3573145