4nwestsaylng wrote: ↑
Tue Mar 12, 2019 5:13 pm
but at the time I knew not to question "free trade" or Keynesian theory too much, as it was dogma, and largely still is.And in my Marxist professor's class, one knew not to challenge too harshly his positions.
That is called "graduating from college". Nothing much has changed.
I believe that you are not up to date on what has happened in economics since you left college.
1. there's been a huge amount done on Trade Theory since the 1970s, and more than one Nobel Prize (Paul Krugman in particular, but others too). Suffice it to say the orthodox position now would be "free trade matters, but by how much depends". And we have empirical data like NAFTA and we are about to have negative empirical data from Brexit (severing of trade relations, maybe).
2. Macroeconomics at the post undergrad level (and the core undergrad courses) is all Rational Expectations Hypothesis/ "rigorous microfoundations" aka Freshwater School - graduate departments at Chicago, Rochester, Carnegie Mellon, Minnesota in particular. Lucas-Sargent Proposition, Real Business Cycle theory ("sunspots") etc.
https://angrybearblog.com/2009/01/backg ... -salt.html
In the field of macroeconomics there is a much deeper division between macroeconomics as practiced at universities closer to the great lakes than to an Ocean (Fresh water economics) and that practiced at universities closer to Oceans (Salt water economics). The geography has shifted some as Fresh water economics has been exported. I’d consider Professor Robert Barro at Harvard to be brackish (with, he reports, noticed salty contamination in the first 6 months after he moved from U. Rochester) and the economics department at the University of Pompeu Fabra (in Barcelona) seems to be distilled. It is a little difficult to explain the disagreement to non economists. Frankly, I think this is because non-economists have difficulty believing that any sane person would take ffresh water economics seriously.
Roughly Fresh water economists consider general equilibrium models with complete markets and symmetric information to be decent approximations to reality. Unless they are specifically studying bounded rationality they assume rational expectations, that everyone knows and has always known every conceivable conditional probability. I’ve only met one economists who claims to believe that people actually do have rational expectations (and I suspect he was joking). However, the fresh water view is that it usually must be assumed that people have rational expectations.
Over near the Great Lakes there is considerable investigation of models in which the market outcome is Pareto efficient, that is, it is asserted that recessions are optimal and that, if they could be prevented, it would be a mistake to prevent them.
Salt water macroeconomics is basically everything else with huge differences between people who attempt to conduct useful empirical research without using formal economic theory and people who note the fundamental theoretical importance of incomplete markets and of asymmetric information and of imperfect competition (as in everything you think you know about general equilibrium theory is known to be false if markets are incomplete or there is asymmetric information or there is imperfect competition – Market outcomes are generically constrained Pareto inefficient which means that everyone can be made better off by regulations imposed by regulators who don’t know anything not known to market participants who also just restrict economic activity and don’t introduce innovations like, say, unemployment insurance).
Leading fresh water macroeconomists include Robert Lucas, Ed Prescott Thomas Sargent, Lars Hansen, John Cochrane, Larry Jones, Robert Barro (mostly), and Kevin Murphy (usually). Leading salt water economists include Paul Samuelson, Edmund Malinvaud, Jacques Dreze, Joseph Stiglitz, Robert Solow, Paul Krugman, Andrei Shliefer, Olivier Blanchard, George Akerlof, Robert Hall, Ben Bernankle, N. Gregory Mankiw, Christina Romer, David Romer and, and Lawrence Summers. Brad DeLong is also a salt water economist and he is very very smart, but last I knew, he was a little too far out there to be really a member of the economists club. I can’t classify Paul Romer.
Notably all of the above have made important contributions to fields other than macroeconomics.
In the US there is a strong correlation between Fresh and Salt and Right and Left. The correlation is not perfect: I understand that Hansen and Sargent are politically left of center. Hall is far right politically, Mankiw is right of center. and I must admit that I have no clue about Bernanke (who I have never actually, you know, seen in the flesh).
An important discrimminant is opinions of John Maynard Keynes. Fresh water macroeconomists generally seem to think that he was not a competent economist. Salt water macroeconomists claim (often implausibly) to be in some way his intellectual followers. Barro for example clearly doesn’t remember what is written in “The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money.” Mankiw, in contrast, advised the students in his macro class (including me) to read it again and again searching for insights.
Interestingly, the fresh water macroeconomists are certain that salt water macro is discredited along the lines of the Ptolomaic model or the Phlogiston hypothesis. For a while they called their models “Modern Business Cycle Theory” stating that all incompatible models were obsolete. In the current debate many have considered it sufficient to say that arguments for the stimulus are nonsense (e.g. Cochrane). The surprisingly low quality of contributions to the debate from the vicinity of Great Lakes has a lot to do with the fact that Fresh Water macroeconomists haven’t thought about fiscal stimulus in decades and sincerely believe that it is an obviously invalid proposal so obvious arguments against it might be valid.
Even more interesting, Fresh water macroeconomists do not claim that their models have not been refuted by the data. Rather they note that all models are, by definition, false. They do test hypotheses from time to time, but don’t explain what the point is. As far as I can understand, they claim that a model *can* be both false and useful and, therefore, their models *are* useful.
The dominant strain of macroeconomics has been DSGE models and they include models of expectations formation. The Central Banks, which pick up the most recent graduates in macro, use Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium models.
There are not any old Keynesians left - IS-LM is not a widely used model. You do get the neo Keynesians, but that's taking the REH language and tools and using it against them - menu costs, etc. That's the Saltwater School.