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I have a solo/individual 401k at Vanguard and I maxed out the employee contributions. But I won't be able to calculate the exact salary for the employer contribution until after the December 31st deadline. What happens if I go over the 25% employer contribution?
The deadline for contributions is normally April 15th of the following year (normal tax filing deadline). If it's a new plan, you have to have it established by the end of the year but can still make contributions until the end of the filing deadline.
I have recently researched and opened a solo 401k in Vanguard as well. As far as I researched there isn’t anything that will monitor your employer contributions. You are your own enforcer. Nothing stopping you from over contributing. Just not good if/when irs decides to check up on you.
Best bet is to call Vanguard and ask. I had mixed up the employer/employee categories one year and ended up over contributing to the employer category. Vanguard was able to move the funds over to the employee category after the fact.