Search found 3209 matches

by Artsdoctor
Mon Apr 23, 2018 4:41 pm
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Medical alert "button"
Replies: 34
Views: 1799

Re: Medical alert "button"

You might try the AARP site:

http://medicalert.systems/aarp-recommen ... t-systems/

I set my mom up with Medical Alert. It looks OK and the concept is good, but we've not had to test them.
by Artsdoctor
Mon Apr 23, 2018 4:34 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Yield Curves-Treasury, CD, AA/AAA muni
Replies: 11
Views: 1229

Re: Yield Curves-Treasury, CD, AA/AAA muni

Baird compiles data that you might be interested in if you haven't already looked at it; there is an analysis of treasuries and municipals which can be helpful. They publish their synopsis every other week.

http://content.rwbaird.com/RWB/Content/ ... entary.pdf
by Artsdoctor
Wed Apr 18, 2018 7:50 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

We are really dancing on the head of a pin here. I really have no doubt that your investments will be safe. We are having an extremely refined conversation about credit risk and taxation, and I appreciate the back-and-forth. For whatever reason, I have really enjoyed learning about fixed income inve...
by Artsdoctor
Tue Apr 17, 2018 8:44 pm
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Is Los Angeles a good place long term to live financially?
Replies: 166
Views: 10756

Re: Is Los Angeles a good place long term to live financially?

I’m thinking of moving to LA and spending the rest of my life there, but I’m concerned about the cost. Is LA expensive? And would pursuing my goals be worth the cost of living there and are the costs worth the quality of life I would have there? Some of my goals are: 1. Get an MBA at a good busines...
by Artsdoctor
Tue Apr 17, 2018 5:38 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Relative Never Took RMDs on Inherited IRA From 2004
Replies: 19
Views: 2341

Re: Relative Never Took RMDs on Inherited IRA From 2004

You guys are great. Though I'm still unsure on if we need to do a separate 5329 for each year missed or if we can just do all in one. Spirit Rider and https://www.morningstar.com/news/glbnewscan/718181/damage-control-for-a-missed-rmd.print.html say separate, but the majority of others here say all ...
by Artsdoctor
Sun Apr 15, 2018 11:10 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: vanguard notice - retiring our old investment platform
Replies: 50
Views: 6142

Re: vanguard notice - retiring our old investment platform

HueyLD wrote:
Fri Apr 13, 2018 3:08 pm
I told my rep that I would be the last client to convert and she chuckled.
Yes, probably because I had just told her the same thing . . .
by Artsdoctor
Sun Apr 15, 2018 5:53 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Backdoor Roth IRA as emergency fund [unique situation, for parents]
Replies: 8
Views: 581

Re: Backdoor Roth IRA as emergency fund [unique situation, for parents]

The Kitces article will give you all the information you need. However, it makes it easier if you get the terminology straightened out. Your parents are over 59-1/2 so the terminology is relatively moot; but for you, use the term "backdoor Roth conversion" and not "backdoor Roth contribution." In re...
by Artsdoctor
Sun Apr 15, 2018 4:53 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

Kevin, You're getting closer to appreciating the complexities of a discount bond and its taxation. I am aware of the "discount of a discount" phenomenon (paying a discount on a bond that was sold at a discount). This is why I never buy municipal zeroes; the hassle factor is just too great and I don'...
by Artsdoctor
Sun Apr 15, 2018 3:18 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Capital Loss Carryover: Use it or save it?
Replies: 35
Views: 3602

Re: Capital Loss Carryover: Use it or save it?

Sperry, Thanks for bringing that 2013 post back to the present. Five years just flew by. In your situation, I'd have to think about the pros and cons because I'm not familiar with your details. I continue to play off those 2008-2009 capital losses so I share your reluctance to give them up. However,...
by Artsdoctor
Sat Apr 14, 2018 7:21 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

I like: Yes, it was in response to the previous question. Bond ladders can have a place in some investors' portfolios, so don't feel as if your voice is being drowned out. Hudson: Your question is a fundamental fixed income question. The Wiki here can give you explanations regarding pricing and yiel...
by Artsdoctor
Sat Apr 14, 2018 6:54 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

I got a guest account at Fidelity for 30 days...easy. The first NC muni I came to is here...you've got to have a Fidelity account or a guest account to follow this link I suspect... https://fixedincome.fidelity.com/ftgw/fi/FIBondDetails?requestType=&displayFormat=TABLE&cusip=65825PCA6&ordersystem=T...
by Artsdoctor
Sat Apr 14, 2018 6:21 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

^ Absolutely. General obligationbonds can be state, county, city, town, village, etc. The credit rating can be extremely varied as well (between state, county, city, etc.). The one difference in the whole equation is that states cannot declare bankruptcy like non-state entities. However, that doesn'...
by Artsdoctor
Sat Apr 14, 2018 5:54 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

^ Kevin: I think there's a misunderstanding. I was referring to the State of Illinois General Obligation bonds; the state has a BBB- credit rating. You're not going to find a State of Illinois General Obligation bond with an AA rating. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-illinois-ratings-fitch/illino...
by Artsdoctor
Sat Apr 14, 2018 5:31 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Lazy Portfolio - Using Fidelity ETF's Vs Vanguard ETF's
Replies: 29
Views: 2421

Re: Lazy Portfolio - Using Fidelity ETF's Vs Vanguard ETF's

I appreciate the feedback. To keep things simple I initially did not want to deal with the FTC but I think I need to revisit that because I think I would be leaving too much money on the table. I already thought about the wash sale rule and realizing I need to consider both accounts together and no...
by Artsdoctor
Sat Apr 14, 2018 4:30 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

^ This will depend on your investment philosophy. Interest rates were very, very low for many years. Many of us learned during that time to "suck it up" and accept yields for what they were. That doesn't mean that we weren't hurt in the learning process because it's incredibly tempting to squeeze ev...
by Artsdoctor
Sat Apr 14, 2018 3:30 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

^ I would strongly urge avoiding IL bonds. Even the state's general obligation bonds are rated BBB-, which is really getting down there. And a state cannot declare bankruptcy! It has been drilled into my head that bonds are for safety and the few bucks you're going to pick up with IL bonds are just ...
by Artsdoctor
Sat Apr 14, 2018 2:17 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: NJ passes law in response to SALT limits
Replies: 9
Views: 1970

Re: NJ passes law in response to SALT limits

Suz,

You're correct. To say that you cannot take a charitable contribution in its entirety "if you get something in return" is not true. California has had this program for several years and I'm not aware of any IRS challenge.

https://www.ftb.ca.gov/individuals/Coll ... edit.shtml
by Artsdoctor
Sat Apr 14, 2018 1:38 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

When you're buying a municipal bond, you're going to want a premium bond or at least a discount de minimis bond. If your discount bond is beyond de minimis, you're going to pay regular income tax on the gain (not just a capital gain), so it's best to avoid them. I don't believe this is correct--at ...
by Artsdoctor
Fri Apr 13, 2018 8:06 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Anyone in high bracket switching to muni. Money market?
Replies: 14
Views: 1246

Re: Anyone in high bracket switching to muni. Money market?

BlackcatCA wrote:
Fri Apr 13, 2018 7:44 pm
Thanks for reminding about NIIT for TEY calculations. Does T-bill interest exempt from NIIT also?
NIIT is only applicable on your federal return. Your T-bill interest is part of your AGI on your federal return (but it's not included on the state return).
by Artsdoctor
Fri Apr 13, 2018 8:04 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

@Kevin Re: Kaiser bonds I hope you do realize that you bought the bonds above par, and upon maturity in a year, in total return, you will be losing money. He has bought a premium bond. He will get his money back in the forms of interest payments, and he'll amortize the bond accordingly. When you're...
by Artsdoctor
Fri Apr 13, 2018 5:37 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

@Kevin Re: Kaiser bonds I hope you do realize that you bought the bonds above par, and upon maturity in a year, in total return, you will be losing money. He has bought a premium bond. He will get his money back in the forms of interest payments, and he'll amortize the bond accordingly. When you're...
by Artsdoctor
Fri Apr 13, 2018 5:32 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Anyone in high bracket switching to muni. Money market?
Replies: 14
Views: 1246

Re: Anyone in high bracket switching to muni. Money market?

There's a bit of a difference between money market funds and short-term (or limited-term) muni funds. Take a look at the duration of the bond funds; your short-term fund won't change much, although the limited-term fund could. But the OP is asking about the muni money market funds, which would defin...
by Artsdoctor
Thu Apr 12, 2018 8:40 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today
Replies: 100
Views: 5811

Re: 2-year AA Munis at Vanguard and Fidelity Today

Kevin, I agree with your assessment on every level. I've bought munis for many years at both Vanguard and Fidelity, and Fidelity will often have a better selection. You can buy at auction with Fidelity as well, if you're every interested. Like you, Larry was extremely helpful in giving me confidence...
by Artsdoctor
Wed Apr 11, 2018 1:36 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: iShares ETFs - International Investing
Replies: 5
Views: 475

Re: iShares ETFs - International Investing

While most of my portfolio is at Vanguard, I have a substantial number of assets at Fidelity. Trading iShares is free at Fidelity so I started using IXUS years ago because I felt it provided a very reasonable array of broad international exposure. I don't think you need to tease out individual compo...
by Artsdoctor
Tue Apr 10, 2018 6:18 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Contribute to 401k or Roth IRA
Replies: 8
Views: 467

Re: Contribute to 401k or Roth IRA

My wife and I file taxes jointly and are squarely within the new 22% federal tax bracket, whether we contribute to my 401k or not. Currently, we fully contribute to our HSA and contribute the full $24,500 to my 401k. I am 52 and plan to retire at 62 to 65, not take SS until 70, and use the time bet...
by Artsdoctor
Tue Apr 10, 2018 4:23 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Wash Sale Question
Replies: 5
Views: 162

Re: Wash Sale Question

Yes, it would be considered a wash sale:

https://www.investopedia.com/articles/r ... e-rule.asp
by Artsdoctor
Mon Apr 09, 2018 11:22 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Vangaurd Municipal Money Market VMSXX 1.39%
Replies: 19
Views: 2180

Re: Vangaurd Municipal Money Market VMSXX 1.39%

Just noticed that Vangaurd Municipal Money Market VMSXX is up to 1.39%. In the 35% tax bracket, that is a tax-equivalent yield of 2.14%! This significantly beats the high rate online savings accounts I have at 1.8% and 1.6%. Is VMSXX FDIC insured? If not, should I worry about that? Thanks in advanc...
by Artsdoctor
Mon Apr 09, 2018 1:47 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Post your TLH success / failures
Replies: 6
Views: 595

Re: Post your TLH success / failures

The 2008-2009 meltdown was brutal and, with the help of Bogleheads, I tax-loss harvested all the way to the bottom in March 2009. The carryover losses were pretty staggering, I have to admit. For the last 10 years, I've had a perpetual $3,000 loss on my federal and state income tax forms, and my cap...
by Artsdoctor
Thu Apr 05, 2018 9:13 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: State Muni Funds
Replies: 10
Views: 1175

Re: State Muni Funds

There has to be demand and there has to be bonds. But you'd also WANT diversification. The national intermediate muni fund has over 7500 bonds, just for perspective. The CA intermediate muni fund has nearly 3500 bonds. On the other hand, the OH, MA, and NJ long-term muni funds have about 500 bonds ...
by Artsdoctor
Wed Apr 04, 2018 4:41 pm
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: VHCOL Home Buying Advice (Bay Area, where else?)
Replies: 65
Views: 4884

Re: VHCOL Home Buying Advice (Bay Area, where else?)

I wouldn't just look at the selling cost of the house; that will come later. I'd first figure out your monthly payment is going to be. It's your first house so it's not unusual to over-extend yourself in a VHCOLA. When we bought our first house, we had 80% financing plus 10% financing at a slightly ...
by Artsdoctor
Wed Apr 04, 2018 2:01 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: NY passes law to get around SALT limit
Replies: 47
Views: 5640

Re: NY passes law to get around SALT limit

They say that "timing is everything" although I'm still not clear how some tax relief could be thwarted by a well-crafted program. As I posted above, CA has been offering this program, which is different from the NY program but with a similar end result, since 2014. They have awarded up to nearly $1...
by Artsdoctor
Wed Apr 04, 2018 12:36 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: NY passes law to get around SALT limit
Replies: 47
Views: 5640

Re: NY passes law to get around SALT limit

This concept is not new although the details are varied. We have had this in California for several years: https://www.ftb.ca.gov/individuals/College_Access_Tax_Credit.shtml I think there is plenty of wiggle room when it comes to changing around the percentages, but I don't see how the IRS would arg...
by Artsdoctor
Wed Apr 04, 2018 11:46 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Large capital loss
Replies: 14
Views: 1025

Re: Large capital loss

Do you live in a high cost of living area? Has your real estate appreciated beyond the $250K/$500K limit? If so, that's your large capital gain if you'd like to sell.
by Artsdoctor
Tue Apr 03, 2018 4:50 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: State Muni Funds
Replies: 10
Views: 1175

Re: State Muni Funds

There has to be demand and there has to be bonds. But you'd also WANT diversification. The national intermediate muni fund has over 7500 bonds, just for perspective. The CA intermediate muni fund has nearly 3500 bonds. On the other hand, the OH, MA, and NJ long-term muni funds have about 500 bonds e...
by Artsdoctor
Tue Apr 03, 2018 4:22 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: William Bernstein: Retirement Investing and Spending in two easy steps
Replies: 77
Views: 9000

Re: William Bernstein: Retirement Investing and Spending in two easy steps

The “stop playing” meme came from an article I wrote for the WSJ a few years back. They only gave me 800 words, and that doesn’t leave a lot of room for nuance or detail. If they’d have given me 5,000 words, here’s what I’d have added: 1) All-TIPS is for the part of your portfolio that you need to ...
by Artsdoctor
Tue Apr 03, 2018 12:57 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Delaying HSA W/D as Long as Possible -- HSA funds on death?
Replies: 9
Views: 823

Re: Delaying HSA W/D as Long as Possible -- HSA funds on death?

^ I like this step-wise approach although I'd add that if you're charitably inclined, you can leave your HSA to a charity if there's no spouse. This is especially smart if you're going to leave something to a charity anyway, because leaving the HSA to that charity will allow funds elsewhere to be tr...
by Artsdoctor
Mon Apr 02, 2018 5:17 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Wash sale question- are ITOT and VTI Substantially Identical?
Replies: 60
Views: 3405

Re: Wash sale question- are ITOT and VTI Substantially Identical?

I will admit that I am not an IRS agent. I have always interpreted the wash sale "spirit of the law" as meaning that you may "get stuck" with something, meaning that there has been "risk" (i.e., "getting stuck" with the large cap fund). I had no way of knowing in March, 2009, that it was the nadir ...
by Artsdoctor
Sat Mar 31, 2018 4:39 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Wash sale question- are ITOT and VTI Substantially Identical?
Replies: 60
Views: 3405

Re: Wash sale question- are ITOT and VTI Substantially Identical?

No. During the 2008-2009 meltdown, I tax-loss harvested to a degree that I had never done before (or since). I wound up TLH-ing in early March, at the nadir, to the Large Cap Stock index. I was never really able to sell at a loss so I've kept it and gradually transferred it to my Donor Advised Fund...
by Artsdoctor
Fri Mar 30, 2018 8:29 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Fidelity Money Market Funds for everyday expenses
Replies: 8
Views: 1673

Re: Fidelity Money Market Funds for everyday expenses

If you can, the Fidelity Money Market Fund [Premium Class] has a current yield of 1.66%. It'll cost you to get in and there is a minimum balance, but you can easily spend down quickly after you open it, so you don't have to tie up large sums. In reality, unless you're talking about huge sums of mone...
by Artsdoctor
Fri Mar 30, 2018 8:20 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Wash sale question- are ITOT and VTI Substantially Identical?
Replies: 60
Views: 3405

Re: Wash sale question- are ITOT and VTI Substantially Identical?

Nobody knows. There is probably no issue but what's the point of sailing close to the wind? It's only for 31 days. How different can the returns for one month between Total Stock and an S&P 500 ETF like SPY or VOO possibly be? It can't possibly matter much--and yet surely there are substantially di...
by Artsdoctor
Fri Mar 30, 2018 5:28 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Max 401(k) before ROTH IRA?
Replies: 12
Views: 732

Re: Max 401(k) before ROTH IRA?

^ At the end of the day, you're going to want tax diversification. You're going to ideally have a taxable account, a tax-deferred account, a Roth, and an HSA. The whole idea is to pick and choose how you want to tap your resources later. It doesn't matter to me how you get those accounts, but you're...
by Artsdoctor
Fri Mar 30, 2018 5:23 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Wash sale question- are ITOT and VTI Substantially Identical?
Replies: 60
Views: 3405

Re: Wash sale question- are ITOT and VTI Substantially Identical?

Nobody knows. There is probably no issue but what's the point of sailing close to the wind? It's only for 31 days. How different can the returns for one month between Total Stock and an S&P 500 ETF like SPY or VOO possibly be? It can't possibly matter much--and yet surely there are substantially di...
by Artsdoctor
Fri Mar 30, 2018 12:14 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Max 401(k) before ROTH IRA?
Replies: 12
Views: 732

Re: Max 401(k) before ROTH IRA?

for most people they should max out their 401k before they max out their roth because they will likely retire at a lower income bracket than their working years. Not necessarily. The marginal tax brackets are very different now than they were a year ago, so I cannot agree with your comment. The OP'...
by Artsdoctor
Thu Mar 29, 2018 7:50 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Muni bonds and WSJ article.
Replies: 12
Views: 1488

Re: Muni bonds and WSJ article.

To summarize article in today’WSJ, more and more of city and state budgets are consumed by medicaid and pension obligations. States such as Illinois is bordering on bankruptcy and cities are receiving less funding from states in order to balance their budgets. Does this raise any concern by Bogelhe...
by Artsdoctor
Thu Mar 29, 2018 10:17 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: IRMAA and Roth Conversions
Replies: 21
Views: 1122

Re: IRMAA and Roth Conversions

There are plenty of articles helping you with this, but I've found that Kitces does a great synopsis: https://www.kitces.com/blog/irmaa-medicare-part-b-part-d-premium-surcharges-new-2018-magi-thresholds/ As others have mentioned, the IRMAA brackets are rigid so if you're over by $1, you're in the ne...
by Artsdoctor
Thu Mar 29, 2018 10:07 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Lowest Fees Donor Advised Fund?
Replies: 11
Views: 589

Re: Lowest Fees Donor Advised Fund?

I use Fidelity because it allows grants as small as $50. Yes - our choice as well If the amounts planned for a DAF are large enough, you could have both Vanguard and Fidelity. Use Vanguard for larger balances and grants, and Fidelity for lower ones. Yes. This is the best option for me as well (usin...
by Artsdoctor
Thu Mar 29, 2018 10:03 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Muni Money Market funds starting to look good!
Replies: 111
Views: 19068

Re: Muni Money Market funds starting to look good!

Pardon my ignorance, but is there any reason to hold Vanguard Municipal Money Market Fund over Vanguard California Municipal Money Market Fund (VCTXX)? I live in California. I presume if I held Vanguard Municipal Money Market Fund may owe some states taxes on dividends since pooled from different s...
by Artsdoctor
Wed Mar 28, 2018 9:23 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: If investor adjusts Cost Basis, then do brokerages flag that change to IRS?
Replies: 5
Views: 594

Re: If investor adjusts Cost Basis, then do brokerages flag that change to IRS?

You will be given a 1099-B for your brokerage account which will list your sales. This information will also be reported to the IRS. On your federal tax return, you'll be entering the trades on Form 8949. Each trade should match your 1099-B if the trade involved covered shares. If the numbers don't ...
by Artsdoctor
Wed Mar 28, 2018 9:15 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: HSA from taxable state to non-taxable state
Replies: 5
Views: 407

Re: HSA from taxable state to non-taxable state

As above, you'll need to sever all of your ties to CA. It would be the cleanest break if you have no property, your driver's license changes, your voter registration changes, and you have established a residence (preferably with your job) in another state. If you have property in CA that you're goin...
by Artsdoctor
Tue Mar 27, 2018 7:33 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: How to Determine Actual Muni Bond Return?
Replies: 71
Views: 4720

Re: How to Determine Actual Muni Bond Return?

Tread, You'll have to figure where your priorities are because there are some points which may be important and some not. First, think about individual bond traders this way, especially when it comes to munis. There are investors and there are dealers. There are experienced investors and there are i...