Search found 10471 matches

by Alan S.
Sat Apr 10, 2021 10:05 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Inherited IRA or IRA rollover?
Replies: 3
Views: 80

Re: Inherited IRA or IRA rollover?

Background: my husband died in Januray and left me his retirement accounts. I am working but need to replace his income from this money now. I heard that you can tranfer the monies into an inherited IRA and withdraw immediately without penalty (the money is income before taxes, of course). In fact,...
by Alan S.
Sat Apr 10, 2021 7:34 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Help me untangle this Roth tax issues: first time home purchase + rollover + over-contribution
Replies: 7
Views: 380

Re: Help me untangle this Roth tax issues: first time home purchase + rollover + over-contribution

instead of both of you  ‘recharacterizing’ $1310 from your respective Roths to your Traditional IRA, one of you could recharacterize $2620 (or more) instead. After reading the Backdoor Roth wiki page, if one of you has a large ‘Traditional’ IRA and no employer plan to roll the pre-tax money to, the...
by Alan S.
Sat Apr 10, 2021 4:53 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Help me untangle this Roth tax issues: first time home purchase + rollover + over-contribution
Replies: 7
Views: 380

Re: Help me untangle this Roth tax issues: first time home purchase + rollover + over-contribution

I've created a bit of a tricky situation with my family's Roth IRAs and I'd like your help sorting it out. PARTNER Partner withdrew the full value of her Roth ($29K) 6/29/20 to apply towards first time home purchase. The money flowed Roth --> Checking --> Savings --> Checking --> Wired to Escrow. W...
by Alan S.
Sat Apr 10, 2021 11:56 am
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Can I contribute the max to a traditional IRA if I made an excess contribution to a Roth IRA then withdrew it?
Replies: 3
Views: 252

Re: Can I contribute the max to a traditional IRA if I made an excess contribution to a Roth IRA then withdrew it?

I contributed $300 to a Roth IRA in early 2020, for tax year 2020. I subsequently found out that I am not eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA. So I withdrew the excess contribution + earnings, as required. I would now like to make a contribution to a traditional IRA for tax year 2020. How much can...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 09, 2021 5:34 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Roth IRA transfer basis
Replies: 4
Views: 573

Re: Roth IRA transfer basis

Thanks a lot for all the information! The additional $12,000 a year of after-tax contributions in my 401k are IRR if I understand that term right (As soon as the contribution is made, Fidelity automatically rolls it into the roth portion of my 401k). So, sounds like this shouldn't be too bad - I ca...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 09, 2021 3:51 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Please Help: After tax - non Roth 401k?
Replies: 10
Views: 911

Re: Please Help: After tax - non Roth 401k?

So, I just asked for a rollover from my 401K from a prior employer at Merrill to my IRA at Fidelity. Merrill cut two checks made out to Fidelity FOB me. The larger one was identified as pre tax 401k money. The smaller check is listed as ‘non-taxable amount eligible to be rolled over’. None of the m...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 09, 2021 1:59 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: HELP! Mega Backdoor Roth
Replies: 1
Views: 256

Re: HELP! Mega Backdoor Roth

My current 401k plan allows me to make after-tax contributions, which I did last year with $17k after-tax contributions. It's currently in money market fund and has grown by about $200. The plan allows me to make in-service transfer/withdrawal of the after-tax amount (the $17k and $200), or do a Ro...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 09, 2021 1:43 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: desperately seeking help understanding Form 8606 on 2020 tax filing (ROTH recharacterization/conversion issues)
Replies: 25
Views: 1034

Re: desperately seeking help understanding Form 8606 on 2020 tax filing (ROTH recharacterization/conversion issues)

(my statement will be a little longer because the 2019 Roth contributions were spread across 12 months, but I have all the details on all of the dollar flows). For purposes of the statement it's surely OK to summarize, e.g., [of year-2019 Roth IRA contributions totaling $7000.00 on various dates sp...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 09, 2021 12:48 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Roth IRA transfer basis
Replies: 4
Views: 573

Re: Roth IRA transfer basis

Roth basis accounting must be done by you for a Roth IRA, and it is done by the plan administrator for a Roth 401k. Therefore, the 1099R reporting a direct rollover from Roth 401k to Roth IRA will show your Roth 401k basis in Box 5. Once in your Roth IRA, add the Box 5 amount to your existing Roth I...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 09, 2021 11:11 am
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Recharacterization screwup - Can this be fixed?
Replies: 3
Views: 330

Re: Recharacterization screwup - Can this be fixed?

Assuming that VG does not see this as their fault and will not reconstruct your request, you now have a confusing array of choices: 1) You could have the now recharacterized 2020 TIRA contribution returned to you with earnings. Unfortunately, those earnings would be taxable and subject to penalty in...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 09, 2021 10:36 am
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Missed RMD from inherited IRA
Replies: 3
Views: 441

Re: Missed RMD from inherited IRA

LE RMDs can begin in 2021 using the 12/31/2020 balance. The Table I divisor used for the 2021 RMD should be what it would have been for 2020, less 1.0. Complete the 2021 beneficiary RMD by 12/31/2021. You are also responsible for decedent's 2019 year of death RMD if decedent passed after RBD and did...
by Alan S.
Thu Apr 08, 2021 7:10 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: TurboTax -- 1099-R Taxable Amount for Mega Backdoor Rollover
Replies: 3
Views: 273

Re: TurboTax -- 1099-R Taxable Amount for Mega Backdoor Rollover

Correction:

The second 4000 1099R should show 0 in 2a, not 4000. Pre tax dollars are going to a TIRA in a non taxable direct rollover.
by Alan S.
Wed Apr 07, 2021 9:33 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Roth 401k RMD's
Replies: 10
Views: 793

Re: Roth 401k RMD's

Most people should have no problem rolling over their Roth 401k to a Roth IRA before reaching 72. That will avoid any RMDs on the Roth money. Even if they are still working at 72 for the plan sponsor, if they complete an in service distribution prior to the year they retire, RMDs will be avoided. Th...
by Alan S.
Wed Apr 07, 2021 3:19 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: CARES Act IRA Distribution/repayment - Tax Software
Replies: 13
Views: 793

Re: CARES Act IRA Distribution/repayment - Tax Software

I got the latest update from H&R today. However, it still doesn't work correctly. The issue is on the 8606 line 15b it says to put the amount attributable to disaster relief. The software is not doing that resulting in double taxation. It has 0 on that line. According to the 8606 directions for...
by Alan S.
Tue Apr 06, 2021 9:00 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Tax withheld on corrective distribution
Replies: 2
Views: 243

Re: Tax withheld on corrective distribution

I mistakenly had an excess salary deferral situation in 401k accounts after switching jobs in 2020, which resulted in an excess of employee contributions. I contacted my current employer's 401k custodian and they issued a corrective distribution of the excess salary deferred + the earnings from tha...
by Alan S.
Tue Apr 06, 2021 8:23 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Coronavirus Retirement Withdrawal Ideas [Cash withdrawal, what now?]
Replies: 7
Views: 727

Re: Coronavirus Retirement Withdrawal Ideas [Cash withdrawal, what now?]

Hi Alan-- Thank you for working this out for me. Looks like taxes are the killer here (like usual), and you are recommending I return the money to the pre-tax plan. Thank you! It depends. If you perceive an advantage in adding to your Roth at current marginal rates (tantamount to a conversion) you ...
by Alan S.
Tue Apr 06, 2021 8:03 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Are converted Roth IRA Contributions Penalty Free Withdrawal?
Replies: 36
Views: 2419

Re: Are converted Roth IRA Contributions Penalty Free Withdrawal?

The 1099R posted above is incorrect. Box 2a should be 0. Since code H signifies as direct rollover from a Roth 401k to a Roth IRA, there would never be taxable amount in 2a. Conversely, if this had been a distribution to the participant then 2a would be correct, but Box 7 would then have shown code ...
by Alan S.
Tue Apr 06, 2021 5:30 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Coronavirus Retirement Withdrawal Ideas [Cash withdrawal, what now?]
Replies: 7
Views: 727

Re: Coronavirus Retirement Withdrawal Ideas [Cash withdrawal, what now?]

In 2020, I withdrew $100,000 from my IRA Rollover account in cash for the coronavirus relief bill. There was no selling of securities. I took the money in case I needed it, but it turns out I don't. My question is; what to do with it? 1. Return the money to the IRA Rollover and not pay taxes. 2. Fu...
by Alan S.
Tue Apr 06, 2021 4:22 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Roth conversion order cancellation (1st post)
Replies: 11
Views: 966

Re: Roth conversion order cancellation (1st post)

OP, don’t touch anything in your IRAs until this is resolved. But since you were attempting to convert the small IRA, were you aware that the pro rata rule would apply when calculating taxes on any withdrawal or conversion from your TIRAs (and that it will continue to apply until all your TIRAs are...
by Alan S.
Tue Apr 06, 2021 1:41 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Anyone else see drastic increase in Zillow value today?
Replies: 127
Views: 12014

Re: Anyone else see drastic increase in Zillow value today?

SQRT wrote: Tue Apr 06, 2021 12:14 pm Up 8% in last 30 days. Paradise Valley Arizona.
Mine also - 8%. Prescott, AZ. Maybe the entire state?
They certainly know how to keep people checking. When is the next bump?
by Alan S.
Tue Apr 06, 2021 1:35 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: IRA Beneficiary & Estate Question
Replies: 18
Views: 1142

Re: IRA Beneficiary & Estate Question

My mother, aunt, and uncle are all beneficiaries to their uncle's estate. Most accounts were put in a trust, and most of his IRAs had a beneficiary. However, there is one IRA that they were not listed on as beneficiaries (it had no beneficiaries). They didn't want to liquidate this IRA because of t...
by Alan S.
Tue Apr 06, 2021 10:20 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: CARES Act & Form 8915-E & TIRA to Roth conversions
Replies: 9
Views: 441

Re: CARES Act & Form 8915-E & TIRA to Roth conversions

Don't feel too bad about missing something, since IRS guidance was not clear about this. It was only after Notice 2020-50 was released in June and indicated that CRD repayments must be eligible for non taxable rollover treatment. A conversion is taxable, but the IRS could have been much more clear. ...
by Alan S.
Tue Apr 06, 2021 10:16 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: CARES Act & Form 8915-E & TIRA to Roth conversions
Replies: 9
Views: 441

Re: CARES Act & Form 8915-E & TIRA to Roth conversions

Don't feel like you missed something that was obvious. After the CARES Act was passed there was considerable confusion over whether a CRD from a pre tax plan could be repaid to a Roth plan. A few tax experts thought it could be for awhile. None of the IRS guidance specifically commented on this, alt...
by Alan S.
Mon Apr 05, 2021 7:43 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Inherited IRA received in 2020 - RMD
Replies: 4
Views: 474

Re: Inherited IRA received in 2020 - RMD

I agree. You must start life expectancy RMDs in 2021. The disability will qualify you as an "EDB" (eligible designated beneficiary) that qualifies for the stretch. But you should secure some official documentation of your disability now such as a statement from your MD that you are disable...
by Alan S.
Mon Apr 05, 2021 5:50 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: 401k distribution and taxes
Replies: 13
Views: 958

Re: 401k distribution and taxes

My wife's brokerage sent a check for $200 from a old 401k on Dec 21, 2020. We deposited the check into an IRA early February and plan to convert it to a Roth this year. My accountant says I would owe taxes and penalty on this for 2020: 1. Is this accurate? 2. How would I report the conversion and b...
by Alan S.
Mon Apr 05, 2021 3:17 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Tax software (Tax-Act) keeps track of prior Roth contributions, conversions, earnings?! New to me.
Replies: 11
Views: 595

Re: Tax software (Tax-Act) keeps track of prior Roth contributions, conversions, earnings?! New to me.

For the life of me, I can't figure out who to model a pre-60 Roth withdrawal correctly. I suspect it's because i'm not using the appropriate code on the 1099-R. I'm off to research how a custodian might report a (for example) $50,000 Roth withdrawal for my age (taxable amount not determined? What c...
by Alan S.
Mon Apr 05, 2021 2:50 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: RMD(s) for Traditional IRA and Rollover IRA?
Replies: 10
Views: 876

Re: RMD(s) for Traditional IRA and Rollover IRA?

The only situation where the RMD result would be wrong using a total balance is having an IRA with a sole spousal beneficiary more than 10 years younger (Table II), and another IRA with a different beneficiary (Table III). Thank you for this comment. My spouse actually is more than 10 years younger...
by Alan S.
Mon Apr 05, 2021 2:37 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Are converted Roth IRA Contributions Penalty Free Withdrawal?
Replies: 36
Views: 2419

Re: Are converted Roth IRA Contributions Penalty Free Withdrawal?

Thank you. I recently transferred to Fidelity, and before Vanguard closed my accounts, it looked like I only could download statements from my and her Roth IRAs when they became brokerage accounts (approx 2012). I could not find statements for my Roth IRA contributions from 2007-2011. Would this ma...
by Alan S.
Mon Apr 05, 2021 12:12 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: RMD(s) for Traditional IRA and Rollover IRA?
Replies: 10
Views: 876

Re: RMD(s) for Traditional IRA and Rollover IRA?

For IRA owners, the IRS states that the RMD should be calculated separately for each IRA account, then added together. Why not just total the balances and apply the divisor just once? The vast majority of people can. The only situation where the RMD result would be wrong using a total balance is hav...
by Alan S.
Sun Apr 04, 2021 1:22 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Capital loss on Inherited Home?
Replies: 4
Views: 692

Re: Capital loss on Inherited Home?

Yes, an inherited property is treated as investment property as long as you do not convert it to personal use. If you move into the house, even for a short period, the IRS may consider this personal use property. Same if you allow a relative to live there rent free. That would eliminate any cap loss...
by Alan S.
Sun Apr 04, 2021 1:07 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Required Minimum Distribution???
Replies: 20
Views: 2902

Re: Required Minimum Distribution???

This can be somewhat confusing. If you defer some portion of your 2021 RMD to 4/1/2022, the amount of your 2021 RMD does not change. However, by not completing the 2021 RMD in 2021, the 12/31/2021 balance will be somewhat higher than it would have been. This somewhat higher 12/31/2021 balance will s...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 02, 2021 3:54 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: do the covid-based rules affect when you inherit an IRA?
Replies: 3
Views: 488

Re: do the covid-based rules affect when you inherit an IRA?

Given that a traditional IRA owner that died in 2019 (at 95) and had multiple beneficiaries (all people), normally the rules state that the inherited IRA would have to be inherited by all of the beneficiaries by 2020 to allow for each of the beneficiaries to take their RMDs based on their respectiv...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 02, 2021 2:39 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Required Minimum Distribution???
Replies: 20
Views: 2902

Re: Required Minimum Distribution???

If the OP takes his first RMD in 2021 he should probably wait until mid-December in case there is an age-based changed to the RMD rules. The IRS is implementing the new RMD tables effective in 2022. There will be no change to the 2021 RMD divisors. 2022 RMDs will therefore be a little lower (~ 6%) ...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 02, 2021 11:39 am
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: JTWROS investment acct owned by parent & adult child [Questions]
Replies: 2
Views: 332

Re: JTWROS investment acct owned by parent & adult child [Questions]

Hi there, I have a bunch of questions about an account owned Joint With Rights of Survivorship between a parent and an adult child that I'm hoping someone can help with. The account in question has several hundred thousand of investments (stocks) with significant capital gains on many of them. The ...
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 02, 2021 11:11 am
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Odd missing Q1 Dividend Distribution-Invesco S&P 500 Pure Growth ETF
Replies: 4
Views: 258

Re: Odd missing Q1 Dividend Distribution-Invesco S&P 500 Pure Growth ETF

You might also check if the 2020 dividend dates changed from 2019. A revised schedule might have started in 2020 that you did not notice and then 2021 dates would also be affected.
by Alan S.
Fri Apr 02, 2021 11:06 am
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Required Minimum Distribution???
Replies: 20
Views: 2902

Re: Required Minimum Distribution???

Because you are also over 70.5 years old, if you are charity-minded, you also can take some or all of your withdrawals as Qualified Charitable Distributions. QCDs don’t increase your taxable income, but the charity gets to spend them, not you. I'm curious how that works. Just for planning purposes....
by Alan S.
Thu Apr 01, 2021 10:06 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Cares ACT distribution and repayment questions
Replies: 11
Views: 834

Re: Cares ACT distribution and repayment questions

Box 7 code is 1 and Box 1 and 2a are the same. Its all pretax with no roth component. Why is it important to know how I am planning to file? Because the form is tricky and even some retail tax programs are having issues. If you are filing on paper, this may be one of the more complex forms you have...
by Alan S.
Thu Apr 01, 2021 7:15 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Roth conversions if still working into 70s
Replies: 7
Views: 783

Re: Roth conversions if still working into 70s

If an individual is still working well into their 70's because they love their job, so, well beyond the age at which they would they would have to take RMDs if they were instead retired - can they do a Roth conversion from their 401K now, while working? The websites on Roth conversions emphasize th...
by Alan S.
Thu Apr 01, 2021 6:27 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: CARES Act & Form 8915-E & TIRA to Roth conversions
Replies: 9
Views: 441

Re: CARES Act & Form 8915-E & TIRA to Roth conversions

Why are you completing Form 8915 E? You cannot use a CRD to convert to Roth but perhaps you qualified for a CRD that you did not convert? As for the conversions, they are valid but cannot be reported on Form 8915 E as CRDs and the conversion income therefore must be fully reported in 2020. The 8915 ...
by Alan S.
Thu Apr 01, 2021 2:18 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Roth IRA backdoor conversion question
Replies: 15
Views: 832

Re: Roth IRA backdoor conversion question

Put another way, if you have multiple TIRA accounts and have TIRA basis, it does not matter which account you make the non deductible contribution to or which account funds the conversion. The tax result is the same since all the accounts are treated as one combined account. Therefore, opening addit...
by Alan S.
Thu Apr 01, 2021 1:18 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: 401k Mutual Fund Expense Ratio vs. Performance Question
Replies: 14
Views: 834

Re: 401k Mutual Fund Expense Ratio vs. Performance Question

Higher ERs operate as a drag against performance. However, some managed mutual funds with higher expenses have overcome this drag and still produced good results, although the results compared to indexes tend to run in cycles. Bill Miller, the famous fund manager beat the S&P 500 for 15 straight...
by Alan S.
Thu Apr 01, 2021 1:02 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Does the IRS require you to keep statements to show that you did not roll over more into a Roth 401(k) than allowed?
Replies: 23
Views: 2163

Re: Does the IRS require you to keep statements to show that you did not roll over more into a Roth 401(k) than allowed?

Rollover of non taxable distributions to a qualified plan can only be done by direct rollover. A govt 457b is treated as a qualified plan. Rollover to IRAs allowed by 60 day rollover as well. Following from IRS site: Thank you Alan! Is there a way to tell from a 1099-R from a 401(k) that the entire...
by Alan S.
Wed Mar 31, 2021 7:22 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: America Rescue Plan and Tax Software Updates
Replies: 21
Views: 2080

Re: America Rescue Plan and Tax Software Updates

The IRS itself is going to need a "rescue plan" if Congress keeps passing retroactive tax legislation. :oops:
by Alan S.
Wed Mar 31, 2021 4:58 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Access Roth 401k funds early
Replies: 1
Views: 143

Re: Access Roth 401k funds early

I have searched and searched and cannot find clarity. My husband and I are both 27 and both have Roth IRA's and Roth 401k's. Total in these accounts is about $200,000. My plan is to eventually retire early. We also have rental properties to supplement income. I know all about Roth conversion ladder...
by Alan S.
Tue Mar 30, 2021 11:07 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Notice of Data Breach
Replies: 10
Views: 1085

Re: Notice of Data Breach

Kroger companies were also exposed by Accellion and are offering the same Kroll services.
by Alan S.
Mon Mar 29, 2021 10:02 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Cares ACT distribution and repayment questions
Replies: 11
Views: 834

Re: Cares ACT distribution and repayment questions

Regarding your question when is the tax due. First, even if you file for an extension, the tax is due on the original due date, traditionally April15. The extension is an extension to file, it is not an extension to pay. Second, Uncle Sam, and the states, expect you to pay taxes as you get income, ...
by Alan S.
Sun Mar 28, 2021 6:18 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Cares ACT distribution and repayment questions
Replies: 11
Views: 834

Re: Cares ACT distribution and repayment questions

Box 7 code is 1 and Box 1 and 2a are the same. Its all pretax with no roth component. Why is it important to know how I am planning to file? Because the form is tricky and even some retail tax programs are having issues. If you are filing on paper, this may be one of the more complex forms you have...
by Alan S.
Sun Mar 28, 2021 6:04 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Does the IRS require you to keep statements to show that you did not roll over more into a Roth 401(k) than allowed?
Replies: 23
Views: 2163

Re: Does the IRS require you to keep statements to show that you did not roll over more into a Roth 401(k) than allowed?

Rollover of non taxable distributions to a qualified plan can only be done by direct rollover. A govt 457b is treated as a qualified plan. Rollover to IRAs allowed by 60 day rollover as well. Following from IRS site: Thank you Alan! Is there a way to tell from a 1099-R from a 401(k) that the entire...
by Alan S.
Sun Mar 28, 2021 4:08 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Avoid 401k rollover to avoid pro-rata pain with backdoor Roth?
Replies: 3
Views: 290

Re: Avoid 401k rollover to avoid pro-rata pain with backdoor Roth?

I have a 401(k) from a job I lost last year. Since I am trying to do a Backdoor Roth each year, I should avoid rolling over that old 401(k) because then I'll be taxed on that when I convert money for a Backdoor Roth - right? Since I am happy with the brokerage and investments of the old 401(k) I th...
by Alan S.
Sun Mar 28, 2021 1:20 pm
Forum: Personal Investments
Topic: Should I add both kids and Spouse as Beneficiaries for IRA?
Replies: 3
Views: 486

Re: Should I add both kids and Spouse as Beneficiaries for IRA?

You can make your kids secondary beneficiaries with your spouse primary beneficiary. The advantage to having your spouse as primary beneficiary, I believe, is that she can add your IRA to hers (or treat it as hers) if you predecease her. She can then take RMD's over her lifetime. Any other benefici...