Search found 59 matches

by Edward Joseph
Sat Oct 06, 2018 7:13 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Variable Annuities - Already Commited, Now What?!?!
Replies: 5
Views: 726

Re: Variable Annuities - Already Commited, Now What?!?!

All three of the Annuity company's you mentioned will have a form you fill out requesting the RMD's. They'll calculate the numbers for you. Contact them, fill the 3 forms out and send them back in. They'll also ask for banking info if you want direct deposit or a check mailed. Unless your Father mad...
by Edward Joseph
Thu Oct 04, 2018 11:16 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Black suit with dark brown shoes?
Replies: 59
Views: 3949

Re: Black suit with dark brown shoes?

I understand not wanting to haul an extra pair of shoes back and forth. FedEx them to yourself at the hotel and then home afterwards. It's certainly an added expense but I've done that with golf attire (shoes/clothes) when I try and travel light for business.
by Edward Joseph
Tue Sep 25, 2018 12:13 pm
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Is there any point to keeping old X-rays?
Replies: 8
Views: 721

Re: Is there any point to keeping old X-rays?

Can't speak to chest X-rays, but I do have a recent digital file of the x-rays of my teeth & jaw I got from the dentist. It's morbid, but I gave it to my parents in the incredibly unlikely event they were needed to identify my body. I guess I've just watched too much C.S.I. over the years. :)
by Edward Joseph
Thu Sep 06, 2018 2:32 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: How Big of a Mortgage Should We Get?
Replies: 41
Views: 3139

Re: How Big of a Mortgage Should We Get?

Just pay cash and be done with it. You can always take out a loan (or line of credit) off the house anytime you'd like if you start to get uncomfortable and need cash. You'll rebuild your savings & taxable investments backup in no time. Isn't a line of credit only off your principal of your loan? T...
by Edward Joseph
Thu Sep 06, 2018 11:30 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: How Big of a Mortgage Should We Get?
Replies: 41
Views: 3139

Re: How Big of a Mortgage Should We Get?

Just pay cash and be done with it. You can always take out a loan (or line of credit) off the house anytime you'd like if you start to get uncomfortable and need cash. You'll rebuild your savings & taxable investments backup in no time.
by Edward Joseph
Thu Aug 09, 2018 4:44 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: HBO Hard Knocks Clip - Compound Interest Clip
Replies: 10
Views: 1386

Re: HBO Hard Knocks Clip - Compound Interest Clip

Browns fan here so I am especially enjoying this year’s season of Hard Knocks. The only thing I didn’t really like is that the other players seems to be under the impression that they can get 10% interest in the bank. (May have been the clip’s editing though.) Other than that, good overall message a...
by Edward Joseph
Wed Jul 25, 2018 7:34 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Buying house with cash
Replies: 12
Views: 1336

Re: Buying house with cash

Your situation couldn't be more ideal. (Based on the information you gave.) Pull the trigger with cash, no questions asked.
by Edward Joseph
Sat Jul 21, 2018 4:18 pm
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: I dont know how to spend money
Replies: 39
Views: 5244

Re: I dont know how to spend money

I had similar questions in my late 20's. It was more along the lines of not knowing the appropriate ways to spend money. For close to 15 years, I've abided by the 50-30-20 framework. (google it for more details) To be more conservative--start with your take home pay. 50%- Needs . (Utilities, basic f...
by Edward Joseph
Tue Jul 17, 2018 11:22 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Class Reunion Fund: How to Hold and Where to Invest?
Replies: 14
Views: 849

Re: Class Reunion Fund: How to Hold and Where to Invest?

Do a 10yr CD, 10yr Bond or High Yield money market account. Have the Bank or Investment firm automatically withhold about 15-20% of the interest for taxes. This will help prevent you having to face out of pocket tax liability.
by Edward Joseph
Sat Jul 07, 2018 9:13 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: 401k loan to pay off debt?
Replies: 37
Views: 1897

Re: 401k loan to pay off debt?

I don't love the idea. Maybe it can be justified with math, however you're really just moving money round without accomplishing much. I know you're paying yourself back interest with the 401k loan, but what is the interest rate? Also, you'll be pulling a chunk of money out of the markets that's curr...
by Edward Joseph
Wed Jul 04, 2018 10:19 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Thinking about moving to Madison, WI or Minneapolis, MN..Any advice?
Replies: 96
Views: 9361

Re: Thinking about moving to Madison, WI or Minneapolis, MN..Any advice?

I lived in Minneapolis for about 15 months in my late 30's for work and loved it. I'm a big-city guy and am also a midwesterner so it gave me that big-city vibe that was less expensive and less busy than a place like Chicago. My experience with the "Minnesota Nice" thing is that it's true with a cav...
by Edward Joseph
Sat Jun 30, 2018 7:37 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Can someone answer a non qualified annuity questions?
Replies: 4
Views: 593

Re: Can someone answer a non qualified annuity questions?

I would first 1035 to Vanguard to reduce fees. Vanguard charges 0.45-0.55% versus whatever (probably 2+%) at the bank. I might reconsider this advice because I doubt the Father is paying fees. I don't think the OP mentioned it, but if this is a VA and all the money is in the Fixed Bucket-typically ...
by Edward Joseph
Sat Jun 30, 2018 7:23 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: All-cash, or part-cash, payment for house?
Replies: 11
Views: 1402

Re: All-cash, or part-cash, payment for house?

I'm the same age and in basically the same position. I'll probably put 100% down when the time comes-it just depends on how much house I want to buy. If debt makes you as uncomfortable as you mention then you might want to do the same. Obviously know one knows what the markets will do in the future ...
by Edward Joseph
Mon May 28, 2018 6:49 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Lump sum versus annuity - could use your insight.
Replies: 18
Views: 2450

Re: Lump sum versus annuity - could use your insight.

How's the health of you and your spouse? Does longevity run in your families? Trying to estimate lifespan is a key variable as well.
by Edward Joseph
Sun May 13, 2018 10:22 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Moving Assets into an Irrevocable Trust
Replies: 5
Views: 624

Re: Moving Assets into an Irrevocable Trust

As stated by the previous commenter, the Irrevocable Trust owns the house--not the son/trustee. This transfers assets out of the owners name and it cannot be changed back. (Possibly some rare exceptions.) If they want the house sold, the Trust sells the house and the proceeds remains in the Trust. T...
by Edward Joseph
Fri May 04, 2018 6:09 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Ed. Jones rep didn't like our plan, now we're locked out
Replies: 152
Views: 19375

Re: Ed. Jones rep didn't like our plan, now we're locked out

It's unlikely that the Advisor can "lock" you out of your account. There is also nothing wrong with him dissolving the relationship. Advisors "fire" clients just like clients "fire" Advisors. Your account will just be moved to an Edward Jones "house account" until you decide on a new EJ Advisor or m...
by Edward Joseph
Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:51 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Help poke holes? Roger Ibbotson recommends a Fixed Index Annuity as a partial bond alternative.
Replies: 23
Views: 2063

Re: Help poke holes? Roger Ibbotson recommends a Fixed Index Annuity as a partial bond alternative.

And lastly, you can do the same thing as the insurance co offering FIA at much lower cost. The publicly-traded insurance companies disclose exactly how they achieve these results (no loss of principal, some chance at appreciation) and it is relatively simple. 1. Buy bonds. 2. Use some or all of the...
by Edward Joseph
Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:50 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Help poke holes? Roger Ibbotson recommends a Fixed Index Annuity as a partial bond alternative.
Replies: 23
Views: 2063

Re: Help poke holes? Roger Ibbotson recommends a Fixed Index Annuity as a partial bond alternative.

(A possibility is that the "generic" FIAs he studied do not exist as real products today and that the real purpose of the paper is to encourage insurance companies to offer better products... I know there’s one called New Heights 9 from a prominent, large Insurance company. It’s uncapped and from w...
by Edward Joseph
Tue Apr 24, 2018 9:23 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Help poke holes? Roger Ibbotson recommends a Fixed Index Annuity as a partial bond alternative.
Replies: 23
Views: 2063

Re: Help poke holes? Roger Ibbotson recommends a Fixed Index Annuity as a partial bond alternative.

This might be the paper? Fixed Indexed Annuities: Consider the Alternative Fixed index annuities are different from each other and hard to understand, and FINRA actually has a warning (OK, an "alert") about them: Equity-indexed annuities: A Complex Choice And according to FINRA, "EIAs were first so...
by Edward Joseph
Tue Apr 24, 2018 9:19 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Help poke holes? Roger Ibbotson recommends a Fixed Index Annuity as a partial bond alternative.
Replies: 23
Views: 2063

Re: Help poke holes? Roger Ibbotson recommends a Fixed Index Annuity as a partial bond alternative.

1. Cost (obvious and those that are not obvious) There isn't a cost.(Ins company keeps the performance above the caps of 8-10% though.) Or, if its an uncapped FIA, there can be a small spread. He apparently accounted for this spread in the analysis. 2. How much did Mr. Ibbotson get paid to write th...
by Edward Joseph
Tue Apr 24, 2018 8:40 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Help poke holes? Roger Ibbotson recommends a Fixed Index Annuity as a partial bond alternative.
Replies: 23
Views: 2063

Help poke holes? Roger Ibbotson recommends a Fixed Index Annuity as a partial bond alternative.

Are you able to poke holes in this investment strategy? (Linked articles) Famed Finance Professor Roger Ibbotson has done a lot of recent work and crafted a Whitepaper identifying strategies to use Fixed Index Annuities (FIAs) from insurance companies as an alternative to all or part of the bond por...
by Edward Joseph
Mon Apr 02, 2018 2:36 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Annuity w guaranteed 5-6% return [payout]?
Replies: 50
Views: 6170

Re: Annuity w guaranteed 5-6% return?

It's probably a deferred VA with an Income Rider. The 5-6% is most likely applied to their Income Base and not to the contract value. The Income Base is what their payout percentage is based off of. If they want to walk away after the CDSC is up, they walk with whatever the contract value is. The co...
by Edward Joseph
Tue Mar 20, 2018 12:24 pm
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Kettlebell Swing experience?
Replies: 50
Views: 4993

Re: Kettlebell Swing experience?

I used to do a workout that alternated kettlebell swings and burpees. 20 reps of one and 20 of the other and then 19 reps of one and 19 of the other repeating all the way down to 1 single rep. It was a great workout. My heart rate was through the roof. Make sure you practice your form with a lighter...
by Edward Joseph
Mon Mar 19, 2018 11:48 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Spreadsheets Samples and What To Keep Track Off
Replies: 5
Views: 853

Re: Spreadsheets Samples and What To Keep Track Off

Also, I used to create a Statement of Cash Flows to accompany my Mint account, but now all I use is Mint for that. The monthly expense tracking became too tedious.
by Edward Joseph
Mon Mar 19, 2018 11:46 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Spreadsheets Samples and What To Keep Track Off
Replies: 5
Views: 853

Re: Spreadsheets Samples and What To Keep Track Off

I religiously keep a Balance Sheet. One one tab is the Main Sheet that I update every Jan 1. A second tab shows my running yearly balances for all assets and liabilities for the past 12 years or so. Its amazing to look back and watch your net worth grow over time. I wish I started it with my first f...
by Edward Joseph
Sun Mar 18, 2018 6:51 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Spoke to a financial advisor yesterday - what do you think he's up to?
Replies: 81
Views: 9269

Re: Spoke to a financial advisor yesterday - what do you think he's up to?

If you feel you can personally handle your investments through Vanguard (as most of us here can), then I would just proceed on your own picking your own Index Funds through Vanguard. This, of course, includes handling all the potential Transfers or 1035x's yourself which at times can get complicated...
by Edward Joseph
Fri Mar 16, 2018 4:58 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Short-term goal portfolio: Should I sell bonds and buy other assets?
Replies: 17
Views: 1330

Re: Short-term goal portfolio: Should I sell bonds and buy other assets?

I have a similar goal with a portfolio earmarked for a down payment in maybe 1-3 years. I also have a similar allocation of 20% equities to 80% bonds. However, I've shortened the duration of my bond funds portfolio to about 1-3 years on average. The Long Term bond holding you have would make me nerv...
by Edward Joseph
Tue Mar 06, 2018 9:51 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Vanguard Total World Stock ETF (VT) as a proxy for an internationally diversified portfolio?
Replies: 20
Views: 3195

Re: Vanguard Total World Stock ETF (VT) as a proxy for an internationally diversified portfolio?

I'll comment on the equity side of your portfolio. VT is an excellent choice as long as you don't mind a roughly 50% allocation to non-US equities. I believe the etf/fund does a good job of encapsulating the entire global economy. Personally, on the equity side, I use a combination of VTI and VXUS ...
by Edward Joseph
Mon Mar 05, 2018 1:51 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Another reason to steer clear of Bitcoin. As if we need another reason...
Replies: 47
Views: 6835

Re: Another reason to steer clear of Bitcoin. As if we need another reason...

I think the point the article and OP is trying to make is the complete anonymity involved with a Bitcoin transfer. Yes, a thief in a ski mask can hold me at gun point and demand I open my safe and hand over $1m in cash. The problem is is that stolen cash typically needs laundered. You can't deposit ...
by Edward Joseph
Sun Mar 04, 2018 9:55 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Low risk tax efficient short term investment - is it Wellesley
Replies: 13
Views: 1365

Re: Low risk tax efficient short term investment - is it Wellesley

I would not use Wellesley Income for money that I may need for a down payment in 1-2 years. If you're not satisfied with FDIC insured bank products, you may want to consider the bulk of the portfolio in Ultra Short Term bond (VUSFX) or partly in Short Term Bond (BSV). For some upside potential, you ...
by Edward Joseph
Sun Mar 04, 2018 7:15 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Vanguard Total World Stock ETF (VT) as a proxy for an internationally diversified portfolio?
Replies: 20
Views: 3195

Re: Vanguard Total World Stock ETF (VT) as a proxy for an internationally diversified portfolio?

I'll comment on the equity side of your portfolio. VT is an excellent choice as long as you don't mind a roughly 50% allocation to non-US equities. I believe the etf/fund does a good job of encapsulating the entire global economy. Personally, on the equity side, I use a combination of VTI and VXUS (...
by Edward Joseph
Mon Feb 26, 2018 9:22 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: What is your credit score?
Replies: 38
Views: 2272

Re: What is your credit score?

Thanks for the reminder to check... From Credit Karma this morning: Trans-815 Equi-818 *Age 39.No debt. Pay off credit card every month. Used to have a mortgage three years ago but sold that home. Chase started closing some of my old, unused credit cards and my score dropped due to a now higher util...
by Edward Joseph
Thu Feb 22, 2018 7:19 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Do you rent even if you can afford to buy?
Replies: 82
Views: 11617

Re: Do you rent even if you can afford to buy?

Yes. I'm single and I rent even though I have enough of a down payment set aside to put 50%-100% down on a home depending on how much house I want to buy. I used to own a condo but needed some flexibility and mobility for work. I work in a sales role that was pretty lucrative but had me moving aroun...
by Edward Joseph
Sun Jan 14, 2018 12:49 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: What should I own on the bond side ???
Replies: 11
Views: 2056

Re: What should I own on the bond side ???

Thanks everyone for the responses. I have been telling myself that I am perhaps too worried about loss of value vs higher interest income. This gives me more to act on that 1. What do people here think about international bonds? 2. Thoughts on using 529 for a part of my fixed income requirements ov...
by Edward Joseph
Sun Jan 14, 2018 8:09 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: What should I own on the bond side ???
Replies: 11
Views: 2056

Re: What should I own on the bond side ???

You need to revisit your premise. Interest rates are not 0, bond fund prices will not reliably and invariably decrease, and rising interest rates leads to greater yield from bond funds. I agree. I think some in the investing community have gone overboard with the fear of holding something like Tota...
by Edward Joseph
Sun Jan 14, 2018 7:46 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Dave Ramsey's Millionaire Study
Replies: 59
Views: 13351

Re: Dave Ramsey's Millionaire Study

He does a "Millionaire Hour" on his radio show on occasion. It's actually one of my favorite segments. I will say, however, that he NEVER asks what TYPE of mutual funds his caller invests in or has grown their millions in. As a side note, I did hear him recently be upfront with a caller by saying he...
by Edward Joseph
Sun Jan 07, 2018 4:26 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Help go from cash to 50/50 AA
Replies: 16
Views: 1609

Re: Help go from cash to 50/50 AA

I don't have any comments or insight regarding your market timing questions. No one else here will be able to give you concrete insight either. The best someone can do is just give you 'piece of mind' to go all in immediately. If 50/50 is your ideal allocation, I would move right away into the follo...
by Edward Joseph
Wed Dec 20, 2017 4:13 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Quite a few people I know in real life that normally don't mess with finances have brought up investing in bitcoin
Replies: 74
Views: 7897

Re: Quite a few people I know in real life that normally don't mess with finances have brought up investing in bitcoin

Ever heard one of the variants of the Kennedy shoeshine story? For example : Let us take a brief step back in time to the 1920s, when there was no regulation on Wall Street and stocks soared on wild speculation. Days before the crash of 1929, Joe Kennedy sold his entire portfolio. How did Joe Kenne...
by Edward Joseph
Wed Dec 20, 2017 3:53 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Quite a few people I know in real life that normally don't mess with finances have brought up investing in bitcoin
Replies: 74
Views: 7897

Re: Quite a few people I know in real life that normally don't mess with finances have brought up investing in bitcoin

Don't deviate from your current path. Go read about Joe Kennedy and his shoeshine boy for a little more insight as to why. (And no, contrary to what your friends say, Bitcoin is not the same as early Facebook or Amazon or the Internet in 1998.) *With that said, if there's some play money you were go...
by Edward Joseph
Tue Dec 12, 2017 9:01 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: NBA Tickets
Replies: 24
Views: 1807

Re: NBA Tickets

I've found flashseats.com to be the best site for tickets. Not every team or venue is associated with them though.
by Edward Joseph
Tue Nov 21, 2017 9:25 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Help DW gets fired, but then next day her boss offers her job back
Replies: 156
Views: 15201

Re: Help DW gets fired, but then next day her boss offers her job back

If your wife stays at a 75% pay reduction, would her boss really go out and try to find a replacement for her? Is he trying to pay that role even less? Since your wife wants to work (and you need the money) I would take the paycut but actively look for a different job. She may end up finding somethi...
by Edward Joseph
Sat Nov 18, 2017 9:31 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances
Replies: 46
Views: 2770

Re: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances

I think this is the right prospectus. http://vpx.newriver.com/GetContract1.asp?clientid=nwvpx&fundid=63890A173 The minimum benefit base after ten years is about $170k; 100k + 10 * 7k. It would only go higher when the Contract Value goes above $170k on a contract anniversary. That is not likely to h...
by Edward Joseph
Fri Nov 17, 2017 11:27 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: My dad's army jacket
Replies: 76
Views: 7465

Re: My dad's army jacket

One possibly is to have it framed and hung in your home with all the insignia and patches. This was my thought. I'm not a vet and I'm not here to pass judgement about "disrespect" but I think it would be a lot more interesting to have it in your home somehow as a conversation piece with all the ins...
by Edward Joseph
Fri Nov 17, 2017 10:14 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances
Replies: 46
Views: 2770

Re: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances

My further insight... This withdrawal rate is way too low. You included withdrawal tables that had them at 5%. (It may be 4.90% for Joint lives.) Did they take a withdrawal already at some point? If so, that would lock them into a lower payband (3.50% perhaps). The guaranteed Income Base after 10 y...
by Edward Joseph
Fri Nov 17, 2017 6:24 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances
Replies: 46
Views: 2770

Re: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances

Thank you everyone for your help thus far! Okay now for the wrap up, which I will add to the OP: -Nationwide Destination B 2.0 variable annuity, Lifetime Income Joint Rider (7%) -Parents purchased $100,000 in October 2012 at age 54, currently age 59 -Can cash out after 7 years, >age 59 1/2, but sub...
by Edward Joseph
Thu Nov 16, 2017 1:27 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances
Replies: 46
Views: 2770

Re: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances

Dang it, found one more "too good to be true" question: Death benefit - I assume when you start taking withdrawls, they will be deducted from the death benefit? Its not like you could take 30 years worth of withdrawls at say 4.5%, get annual market adjusted base increases, AND then get your base pa...
by Edward Joseph
Thu Nov 16, 2017 1:18 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances
Replies: 46
Views: 2770

Re: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances

You didn't mention what the current contract value is therefore it's tough to tell how well it's performing relative to the 7% simple interest growth. Remember, the 7% is applied to the protected Income Base, not the contract value. If the market continues upward, they don't need the 7%. They can j...
by Edward Joseph
Thu Nov 16, 2017 11:06 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances
Replies: 46
Views: 2770

Re: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances

Thank you all for your feedback thus far! My biggest issue is the lack of consistency in language throughout this document. It makes it incredibly difficult to determine what the heck each section is talking about! I think I have found the section that would determine payout: "Lifetime Withdrawl Pe...
by Edward Joseph
Thu Nov 16, 2017 8:49 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances
Replies: 46
Views: 2770

Re: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances

You may want to consider a 1031 tax free exchange into the low cost Vanguard Variable Annuity, if keeping the variable annuity is something your parent's want to do. That would defer the gains even longer, but at a much reduced expense. Vanguard has a handy calculator that will compare the cost of ...
by Edward Joseph
Thu Nov 16, 2017 8:44 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances
Replies: 46
Views: 2770

Re: Variable Annuity Help - Parent's finances

1) Yes. After 7 years you can walk away with the contract value (surrender value) penalty free. 2) Incorrect. The protected Income Base is growing by 7% simple interest NET of fees. You DO NOT deduct the fees from the 7% growth. Obviously, the fees create "drag" on the performance of the investments...