Search found 1570 matches

by CyclingDuo
Mon Aug 20, 2018 10:29 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Teachers Who Have Net Worth of $1 million +
Replies: 104
Views: 12013

Re: Teachers Who Have Net Worth of $1 million +

student wrote:
Mon Aug 20, 2018 9:20 am
In the thread that you have linked in the above post, you said that you have received a job offer. Did you take it?
I took it - and I am enjoying it! In addition to the new job (within the technology industry), I will also be doing adjunct work at two colleges this academic year.
by CyclingDuo
Mon Aug 20, 2018 8:31 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Teachers Who Have Net Worth of $1 million +
Replies: 104
Views: 12013

Re: Teachers Who Have Net Worth of $1 million +

As a retired teacher, I'm interested in hearing from my fellow Life-Giving Educators who were able to devote their lives to teaching, invest over time, may have started side businesses, and have amassed over $1 million net. How did you do it? Perhaps share your net worth as a testament to other you...
by CyclingDuo
Sun Aug 19, 2018 7:07 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: 4-5 yrs to retirement--seeking insights on funds & priorities
Replies: 17
Views: 2107

Re: 4-5 yrs to retirement--seeking insights on funds & priorities

How do you recommend applying the 3-legged stool approach when income is expected to change throughout retirement such as a delay on pension (until 2027) and social security (2032 and 2038), and an early retirement incentive paid out over the first 5 years. Our expenses change over time too, though...
by CyclingDuo
Fri Aug 17, 2018 10:40 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Fidelity 401(k) millionaires hits record high
Replies: 48
Views: 5394

Re: Fidelity 401(k) millionaires hits record high

Today's million is like having $475,000 in 1988. Not that I would ever look down on that amount, let alone a million in modern dollars. But it doesn't quite mean what it used to. In another few decades, anyone saving for the future should have a million accumulated pretty quickly. At some point bet...
by CyclingDuo
Fri Aug 17, 2018 8:52 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Fidelity 401(k) millionaires hits record high
Replies: 48
Views: 5394

Re: Fidelity 401(k) millionaires hits record high

Today's million is like having $475,000 in 1988. Not that I would ever look down on that amount, let alone a million in modern dollars. But it doesn't quite mean what it used to. In another few decades, anyone saving for the future should have a million accumulated pretty quickly. At some point bet...
by CyclingDuo
Fri Aug 17, 2018 8:16 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Fidelity 401(k) millionaires hits record high
Replies: 48
Views: 5394

Re: Fidelity 401(k) millionaires hits record high

In addition to the impressive market returns starting in 2009, the numbers reported by Fidelity of a rise in the number of 401k account balances that have reached $1M also includes the reality of the number of savers that began contributing in the mid to late 80's and early 90's as their balances an...
by CyclingDuo
Thu Aug 16, 2018 4:53 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Fidelity 401(k) millionaires hits record high
Replies: 48
Views: 5394

Re: Fidelity 401(k) millionaires hits record high

You would have to be working over 22-23 years (25 years realistically), just about maxing-out year after year, get decent employer matching, keep invested in equities (than jumping out of market, or request too many loans etc), incur low expenses charged by Funds, expect decent market returns, go t...
by CyclingDuo
Thu Aug 16, 2018 9:50 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Very confused with the current market
Replies: 112
Views: 12505

Re: Very confused with the current market

Your 401K is savings, which is what I think is key. I'm amazed at how many people don't even participate in a 401K. A lot of companies these days have taken charge of that problem a bit. When employees sign on, a mandatory enrollment in the 401k plan is involved (albeit at a lower contribution rate...
by CyclingDuo
Thu Aug 16, 2018 9:17 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Very confused with the current market
Replies: 112
Views: 12505

Re: Very confused with the current market

I know someone who puts money in her 401b. She is invested in all available funds in equal amounts. Yikes! She has never read a book on investing. I doubt she maxes the. 401b - I think pension she will have makes her believe she doesn’t need to save. Probably depends on her pension, how long she wo...
by CyclingDuo
Thu Aug 16, 2018 8:33 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Bullish/bearish on GE? Make your case here - new lows today
Replies: 58
Views: 4471

Re: Bullish/bearish on GE? Make your case here - new lows today

GE is doing decade lows today. I bought $2000 worth at 12.xx today . In 2008, their low was ~$8.50. Today they're trading $12.xx. I can see it doing 8 unless it goes to zero which means I'll take heat for about 1/3 of my position size. If their old low marks the ultimate bottom. I don't really know...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Aug 15, 2018 7:24 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Very confused with the current market
Replies: 112
Views: 12505

Re: Very confused with the current market

Real returns since 1802.... https://farm5.staticflickr.com/4462/37815865451_892808fdd4_o.png Admission of ignorance: what are "Bills?" Federal Treasury bills? Any federal or state or muni note/bond/bill? Something obvious to everyone else? Thanks! Not a bad question at all. Jeremey Siegel calls sho...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Aug 15, 2018 11:28 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Housing cost as a % of Income
Replies: 7
Views: 730

Re: Housing cost as a % of Income

There are lots of opinions on what percentage of your income should go to housing costs. I was wondering what percentage of income bogelheads spend or recommend On housing costs. I’m specifically interested in home ownership, so mortgage/property tax/mantience cost etc included. Thanks in advance. ...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Aug 15, 2018 9:15 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Mark Cuban bullish on Netflix and Amazon
Replies: 19
Views: 1803

Re: Mark Cuban bullish on Netflix and Amazon

Mark Cuban is bullish on Netflix and Amazon. Does not own Tesla stock. Also, he is holding a tremendous amount of cash (which he stated at least twice). The whole short interview here: https://youtu.be/11kvtuuTvrM Thoughts? Are you keeping cash on the sidelines in case a great opportunity comes alo...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Aug 15, 2018 8:37 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: U.S. stocks in freefall
Replies: 6752
Views: 1469697

Re: U.S. stocks in freefall

Its shaping up to be a good buy day again for both US and International. Same "stressors" as last week depending on which doom and gloom article you read. Continued rally to the Earth's core confirmed. :beer always seems to go decrease right after the 401k buys go through Keep in mind that many are...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Aug 14, 2018 4:30 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Funding 403(b) as Wife Starts Full-time Teaching Career
Replies: 8
Views: 584

Re: Funding 403(b) as Wife Starts Full-time Teaching Career

Funds available in her 403(b) Best ones in that list are... Vanguard Institutional Index Inst VINIX 0.04 (This is their S&P 500 fund.) Use either the Small Cap fund alone or use both the Small Cap & Mid Cap funds in tandem with the Vanguard Institutional Index Fund to approximate the Total US Stock...
by CyclingDuo
Sun Aug 12, 2018 7:21 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Resources for expat retiring and returning to the US
Replies: 6
Views: 768

Re: Resources for expat retiring and returning to the US

My wife and I (US citizens) will probably return to the US in 2021, following my retirement from a job in Europe. What's the best way to keep up to date about developments affecting Medicare and Social Security? And what are the best resources, online or hard copy, regarding personal finance (movin...
by CyclingDuo
Thu Aug 09, 2018 8:53 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: The Three-Fund Portfolio
Replies: 2223
Views: 1387936

Re: The Three-Fund Portfolio

I was disappointed it did not have a comprehensive historic return grid for a Vanguard 3 fund portfolio at 10%, 20%, & 30% stock/bond split for Vanguard shares. SWBoarder: I do not like using past returns because past performance does not forecast future performance. Nevertheless, you can see past ...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Aug 08, 2018 10:22 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Larry Swedroe: Valuations Too High?
Replies: 207
Views: 11453

Re: Larry Swedroe: Valuations Too High?

http://www.etf.com/sections/swedroe-valuations-too-high?nopaging=1 Excellent article placing current CAPE in perspective. Larry reviews multiple reasons for CAPE to have drifted upwards over the decades. When we talk mean reversion, what mean do we revert to? Equities may be generously valued, impl...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Aug 08, 2018 9:27 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: "Age in Bonds" fails almost everyone
Replies: 217
Views: 12884

Re: "Age in Bonds" fails almost everyone

Furthermore, “age in bonds” isn’t bad advice because we’ve been in a bull market: it’s bad advice for any kind of market. It was damn good advice when bonds returned 7-8%! :mrgreen: I remember those days, one of my first purchases with my new Brokerage IRA were 3 zero coupon bonds paying 8%. That w...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Aug 07, 2018 7:35 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: "Age in Bonds" fails almost everyone
Replies: 217
Views: 12884

Re: "Age in Bonds" fails almost everyone

vineviz wrote:
Mon Aug 06, 2018 10:05 pm
Furthermore, “age in bonds” isn’t bad advice because we’ve been in a bull market: it’s bad advice for any kind of market.
It was damn good advice when bonds returned 7-8%! :mrgreen:
by CyclingDuo
Sun Aug 05, 2018 3:27 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Will dividend spending only portfolio last forever ?
Replies: 90
Views: 5713

Re: Will dividend spending only portfolio last forever ?

If somebody is able to plan their expenses in retirement to only spend dividends, then wouldn’t that portfolio last forever?(except for truly extreme circumstances). I know that the emphasis on this forum is on total returns, but dividend spending only maybe a way to enforce discipline on spending....
by CyclingDuo
Sat Aug 04, 2018 8:38 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: High expense ratio worth it/Portfolio review
Replies: 48
Views: 3461

Re: High expense ratio worth it/Portfolio review

We have been using an DFA investment advisor for the last year who has us invested in their DFA funds with an 85/15 stocks bonds split. Overall with his fee (1%) and the expense ratio for the various funds our overall expense ratio is 1.78. Our advisor has stated that even with the high expense rat...
by CyclingDuo
Fri Aug 03, 2018 9:11 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: New Three Fund Portfolio options for Fidelity Personal Retirement Annuities
Replies: 1
Views: 305

New Three Fund Portfolio options for Fidelity Personal Retirement Annuities

This post or information will not be pertinent to many, but for those that do happen to have money set aside in the Fidelity Personal Variable Annuity, in addition to the recent news of Fidelity adding the Zero ER funds for brokerage accounts, they have also increased the options available in the Pe...
by CyclingDuo
Fri Aug 03, 2018 6:58 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: So go the FAANG, so goes the market?
Replies: 41
Views: 4458

Re: So go the FAANG, so goes the market?

Apple is, first and foremost, a marketing company. The CPU in the Iphone up until that iPhone 6 was made my Samsung. Samsung has always outperformed Apple laptops and cellular phones at any and every given time, usually at a cheaper price. Samsung is a technology company, first and foremost. Apple ...
by CyclingDuo
Thu Aug 02, 2018 8:15 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Fidelity Files for two Fidelity ZERO℠ Funds (0.00% ER total stock and total international mutual funds)
Replies: 667
Views: 57637

Re: Fidelity Files for two Fidelity ZERO℠ Funds (0.00% ER total stock and total international mutual funds)

moehoward wrote:
Thu Aug 02, 2018 7:27 am
This is a win win for all the investors on Bogleheads. Incremental gains...
Mic drop!
:sharebeer


Yours was the best post in the entire thread and sums up 5+ pages of "blah, blah, blah, blah.....!"
by CyclingDuo
Wed Aug 01, 2018 8:44 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Is maxing Out an IRA, 403B, and 457B Along with a Pension Too Much Saving for the Future?
Replies: 19
Views: 2201

Re: Is maxing Out an IRA, 403B, and 457B Along with a Pension Too Much Saving for the Future?

Here is what I am thinking: Me: Max Roth IRA, max Roth 403b, max Roth 457b = $42,500 Wife: Max Roth IRA, $8000/yr into Roth 403b (most of her take home pay) = $13,500 Total: $56K into retirement plans each year + we both pay into CalPERS and are vested Sounds good. If you find it too much of a sque...
by CyclingDuo
Sun Jul 29, 2018 5:35 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: US citizen living abroad in Europe and attempting to invest - help?
Replies: 6
Views: 688

Re: US citizen living abroad in Europe and attempting to invest - help?

I've been going through the forum for a bit now and have been reading up for several weeks on just how screwed I am as a US citizen living abroad (on a permanent basis) in Europe. I started this journey by trying to set up a brokerage account on Flatex. Upon selecting my citizenship, I got essentia...
by CyclingDuo
Fri Jul 27, 2018 8:07 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Facebook stock in freefall! (20% drop in 1-day)
Replies: 120
Views: 10768

Re: Facebook stock in freefall! (20% drop in 1-day)

Maybe everyone will just start using bogleheads to post pictures of their exotic food and cute fury friends. I'm going to guess neither would play quite as well here as they would on FB... https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1573/25731531670_52ebffddba_b.jpg https://farm3.staticflickr.com/2839/336043793...
by CyclingDuo
Thu Jul 26, 2018 8:59 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: How to Learn Italian (a little) Before Trip to Italy
Replies: 34
Views: 2064

Re: How to Learn Italian (a little) Before Trip to Italy

I'll be in Italy for a few weeks later this year (major cities), and I'd like to learn a little conversational Italian before I go. I know I can't learn much in this period of time, but it will be better than nothing (I hope). There are soooo many language learning programs on the Internet, and I h...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Jul 25, 2018 11:43 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: New book based on Millionaire Next Door
Replies: 120
Views: 15819

Re: New book based on Millionaire Next Door

However, I suspect most people have a tendency to over-promote their own profession, though, particularly when it comes to sensitive issues such as hours worked and salary. The data shows that teachers generally work less hours than other professionals and most teachers are given significant time d...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Jul 25, 2018 10:43 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: New book based on Millionaire Next Door
Replies: 120
Views: 15819

Re: New book based on Millionaire Next Door

Yes, there are challenges for teachers becoming millionaires, However, a teacher that contributes the maximum to an IRA and lets it compound for 30 years could have a pretty substantial sum plus the 50K a year pension could provide for a comfortable retirement. A retiree with 1M in retirement accou...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Jul 25, 2018 9:01 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: New book based on Millionaire Next Door
Replies: 120
Views: 15819

Re: New book based on Millionaire Next Door

I've known enough teachers to know that it is often not a 12 hour a day/7 day a week job, unless you are mixing in high-end private schools and/or academia. I would be in the latter group (academia), and my wife's particular job includes non-stop paperwork and forms to file for the state as she is ...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Jul 25, 2018 8:41 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August
Replies: 46
Views: 2497

Re: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August

I live very close to the area being discussed. Tornados that produce this type of damage are relatively rare in Iowa. It happens, but it’s very unusual. I wouldn't give it a second thought. Enjoy one of the biggest state fairs in the country. Over million people attend each year throughout the 10 d...
by CyclingDuo
Wed Jul 25, 2018 8:39 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August
Replies: 46
Views: 2497

Re: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August

Odds are extremely low. I've lived in the Midwest my entire life and not seen one. Of course they do happen and can cause devastation, but odds of injury or death are higher from heat and flooding. To visualize how unlucky (or lucky) you would be to see a tornado, here is the link to a tornado trac...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 8:48 pm
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August
Replies: 46
Views: 2497

Re: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August

J295 wrote:
Tue Jul 24, 2018 8:42 pm
I’ve lived in this area my entire life, approaching my sixth decade, and I’ve never worried about tornadoes
So therefore they don't exist and are not a problem? :oops:
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 8:27 pm
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August
Replies: 46
Views: 2497

Re: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August

Odds are extremely low. I've lived in the Midwest my entire life and not seen one. Of course they do happen and can cause devastation, but odds of injury or death are higher from heat and flooding. To visualize how unlucky (or lucky) you would be to see a tornado, here is the link to a tornado trac...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 7:16 pm
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August
Replies: 46
Views: 2497

Re: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August

Op here....I expected a couple replies and never thought this many people would weigh in.Thanks for all the reality checks and I am certain a lot more people than just me learned something here.Before I posted here I honestly thought everyone who lives in the Midwest probably had seen or experience...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 5:53 pm
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August
Replies: 46
Views: 2497

Re: Tornadoes in Iowa,Nebraska,KC In August

We are headed to Des Moines on Aug 8 and then driving to Omaha and Kansas City, flying home on the 15th. Should we be worried about tornadoes? Thanks. The odds are in your favor that you will be fine. Peak season are the summer months including August for the areas you mention (Iowa, Nebraska, Kans...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 1:18 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: New book based on Millionaire Next Door
Replies: 120
Views: 15819

Re: New book based on Millionaire Next Door

Don't a lot of teachers take side gigs during their summers off? I remember my mom (a teacher) used to teach at the local community college in the summers. I think she mentioned it was worth 3000-4000 per summer. Multiply that by 30 summers, and it adds up pretty quickly. You would think. https://w...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 1:03 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: AT&T Stock?
Replies: 17
Views: 2030

Re: AT&T Stock?

I know it's sort of bad form to ask about a single stock, but I would wager that a number of people here have T stock. So I'll break the unwritten rule and ask about it since it's pretty far below it's high of 40 and has a P/E in the 6-ish range and has been stalled for years now. Thanks in advance...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 12:33 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: New book based on Millionaire Next Door
Replies: 120
Views: 15819

Re: New book based on Millionaire Next Door

No kidding. My guidance was limited to being handed a list of target date funds by HR and hastily estimating when I'd be 65. And when I decided to max out my 457, I had a lot of quizzical looks from HR asking me if I was sure that I wanted $X taken out, did I understand it was every two weeks, not ...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 11:37 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: New book based on Millionaire Next Door
Replies: 120
Views: 15819

Re: New book based on Millionaire Next Door

You would think this might be a logical role for unions or professional organizations (in non union states). But that has not been my experience either. The unions seem to get very deep into the weeds on health insurance issues but I never heard one word about 403b options. As an experienced bogleh...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 10:42 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: New book based on Millionaire Next Door
Replies: 120
Views: 15819

Re: New book based on Millionaire Next Door

So true. In all the schools I have taught at there is basically a benefits fair in August during the back to school inservice week. It happens when teachers are hurried and stressed about wanting to get back into their classroom to prep for th upcoming school year and annoyed by all the endless red...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 10:36 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Cheaper alternatives to Broadway shows?
Replies: 25
Views: 854

Re: Cheaper alternatives to Broadway shows?

We missed the 6 hour window to get tickets for Hamilton here in Des Moines before it sold out that Friday last November when tickets went on sale at 9 A.M. and were sold out by 3 P.M., so c'est la vie . We'll catch it someday, somewhere, somehow. We have children in NYC and San Francisco, so always...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 10:09 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Cheaper alternatives to Broadway shows?
Replies: 25
Views: 854

Re: Cheaper alternatives to Broadway shows?

What can go wrong if you do not secure the copyrights! http://www.onstageblog.com/onstage-blog-news/2018/4/30/high-school-production-of-the-lion-king-cancelled-mid-run-due-to-copyright-issue That was an interesting read, thanks for sharing.. So I guess it takes 15+ years before the rights are relea...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 9:26 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Cheaper alternatives to Broadway shows?
Replies: 25
Views: 854

Re: Cheaper alternatives to Broadway shows?

What can go wrong if you do not secure the copyrights! http://www.onstageblog.com/onstage-blog-news/2018/4/30/high-school-production-of-the-lion-king-cancelled-mid-run-due-to-copyright-issue That was an interesting read, thanks for sharing.. So I guess it takes 15+ years before the rights are relea...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 9:03 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Cheaper alternatives to Broadway shows?
Replies: 25
Views: 854

Re: Cheaper alternatives to Broadway shows?

Attend high school, college, and community theatre productions of musicals. Much cheaper, same stories, and you are supporting - in some cases - emerging artists and programs that are non-profit. Will these places do stuff like Lion King, Hamilton etc? Ha! You need to understand capitalism a bit be...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 8:53 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Cheaper alternatives to Broadway shows?
Replies: 25
Views: 854

Re: Cheaper alternatives to Broadway shows?

Some friends of mine are obsessed with Broadway shows and pay $$$ to watch the same show multiple times. However, these friends have no interest in any other kind of theater. Surely there must be cheaper kind of musical plays ( <$20 ) that offer a more intimate experience but without the "stars"? A...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 8:35 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: New book based on Millionaire Next Door
Replies: 120
Views: 15819

Re: New book based on Millionaire Next Door

I hadn't thought of the other perks from my job, besides the help with my middle-school-aged child's college tuition (free where I work, discounted elsewhere) when that time comes. Yes, this is a HUGE benefit for professors/administration/staff who work at colleges or universities that provide the ...
by CyclingDuo
Tue Jul 24, 2018 8:00 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: New book based on Millionaire Next Door
Replies: 120
Views: 15819

Re: New book based on Millionaire Next Door

A nice study to couple with The Millionaire Next Door series would be the academic study called "The College Payoff" which is available here: https://www2.ed.gov/policy/highered/reg/hearulemaking/2011/collegepayoff.pdf It takes a look at career earnings in various fields of study, various degrees, a...