Search found 49 matches

by MarkVH0518
Sat Dec 15, 2018 10:27 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: NPR On Point: Stock Market Distress Signal: How Low-Cost Index Funds Are Taking Over
Replies: 26
Views: 3983

Re: NPR On Point: Stock Market Distress Signal: How Low-Cost Index Funds Are Taking Over

Thanks, I was mostly just interested in the mechanics of it. So did they vote positively for the other directors and only withheld a vote for Cheryl and Mark? Correct! As noted above, withdrawal of director approval is the most negative vote allowed. It sends a signal even if the immediate, direct ...
by MarkVH0518
Fri Dec 14, 2018 9:46 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: NPR On Point: Stock Market Distress Signal: How Low-Cost Index Funds Are Taking Over
Replies: 26
Views: 3983

Re: NPR On Point: Stock Market Distress Signal: How Low-Cost Index Funds Are Taking Over

How Vanguard has voted Proxies: https://about.vanguard.com/investment-stewardship/how-our-funds-voted/ Thanks Rick. I agree that Vanguard is voting proxies responsibly. For example, I was tickled to see that Vanguard withheld votes for Facebook board members Sandberg and Zuckerberg. BlackRock (iSha...
by MarkVH0518
Thu Dec 13, 2018 1:49 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: NPR On Point: Stock Market Distress Signal: How Low-Cost Index Funds Are Taking Over
Replies: 26
Views: 3983

Re: NPR On Point: Stock Market Distress Signal: How Low-Cost Index Funds Are Taking Over

Rick Ferri wrote:
Thu Dec 13, 2018 1:38 pm

I do not want my votes to be disqualified. If I don't like how Vanguard is voting proxies, I'll switch to another index fund provider.
Rick

How do you find how Vanguard is voting its (my) proxies?

Mark
by MarkVH0518
Tue Nov 27, 2018 2:11 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Quicken 2019 and forward
Replies: 55
Views: 3308

Re: Quicken 2019 and forward

I have no intention of paying annual fees; I thought the 3-year sunset was not justified. I have Q2017, so my decision point is a further year out. Nevertheless here is my plan. Last year, I purchased ImportQIF from QuicknPerlWiz.com (note the missing 'e') I had stayed on Q97 for over a decade befor...
by MarkVH0518
Wed Oct 31, 2018 5:33 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Capital loss & Filing Separately
Replies: 4
Views: 382

Re: Capital loss & Filing Separately

I finally completed the process. Created a new Fidelity account with my tax id; transferred the specific share lots
that had a loss; and then sold them. Fidelity's year-to-date tax activity report shows the appropriate capital loss.
Done!
by MarkVH0518
Mon Oct 15, 2018 4:26 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Capital loss & Filing Separately
Replies: 4
Views: 382

Re: Capital loss & Filing Separately

so we've opened a second brokerage account in my spouse's name only and transferred the investment there so we can tax loss harvest enough to each get get a $1500 loss (so $1500 in the joint account for me and $1500 in my spouse's account). Fantastic idea! My account is with Fidelity and I have sta...
by MarkVH0518
Sat Oct 13, 2018 8:44 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Capital loss & Filing Separately
Replies: 4
Views: 382

Capital loss & Filing Separately

I am anticipating a tax loss harvest transaction in 2018. I wish to take full advantage of the per couple $3000 capital loss deduction against ordinary income In Ohio, we save ~$1500 in state taxes by filing separately. The tax ID on our brokerage account is my wife's. When filing separately, there ...
by MarkVH0518
Thu Jul 26, 2018 1:55 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Form 8606 in Non-deductible IRA conversion to Roth IRA
Replies: 7
Views: 710

Re: Form 8606 in Non-deductible IRA conversion to Roth IRA

My suggestion is to file an amended return for each of years 2014,2015,2016. There will be no impact to taxes due in those years. The amended return is only to document your non-deductible IRA in those years and to set a paper trail of the tax basis you have in your IRA. I'm not a tax lawyer, but th...
by MarkVH0518
Thu Jul 12, 2018 8:22 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.
Replies: 30
Views: 3310

Re: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.

Two comments based on what I've been wrestling with for myself: I'm surprised you decided to do Roth conversions over the $200,000 point where the 3.8% NIIT kicks in. Personally, I'm planning on doing Roth conversions just up to AGI of $200,000. Like you, I probably have more money than I need to l...
by MarkVH0518
Wed Jul 11, 2018 2:35 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Can I use Fidelity's BrokerageLink to avoid 401k fees?
Replies: 14
Views: 1065

Re: Can I use Fidelity's BrokerageLink to avoid 401k fees?

car733 wrote:
Wed Jul 11, 2018 7:36 am

After they started charging, you kept the BrokerageLink account?
After they started charging I continued to use BrokerageLink.
I preferred buying Vanguard ETFs in the BrokerageLink over the fund available in the 401K plan
by MarkVH0518
Wed Jul 11, 2018 2:25 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.
Replies: 30
Views: 3310

Re: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.

I struggle with the balancing of taking cap gains at 0% and conversions to Roth at 12% bracket. Thanks. Dude, Maybe your question wasn't to me, but it applies to my sister, who I'm helping with financial planning. Here's how I'm thinking about this question and am looking for confirmation to my app...
by MarkVH0518
Wed Jul 11, 2018 2:19 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.
Replies: 30
Views: 3310

Re: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.

I have a pension of 35K; my wife has no pension. We have been retired for 3 years now and can live very comfortably, even somewhat extravagantly, on 130K per year. ... The plan is to take my wife's social security at 62 and mine at age 70. Her SS will be $22K; mine will be $40K. Your plan seems fin...
by MarkVH0518
Wed Jul 11, 2018 11:52 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.
Replies: 30
Views: 3310

Re: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.

jebmke wrote:
Wed Jul 11, 2018 11:32 am
As far as I know, IRMAA starts immediately. My wife starts Medicare in September and she has already been notified of the IRMAA premium adder.
Yes, IRMAA start immediately. But what year's tax return was used to determine your IRMAA for 2018.
Was tax return from 2017 or tax return from 2016?
by MarkVH0518
Wed Jul 11, 2018 11:15 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.
Replies: 30
Views: 3310

Re: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.

Were you planning on switching to filing taxes married-filing-jointly at IRMAA age? I'm guessing so, since you mention the $214,000 threshold (which applies to married-filing-jointly), but thought it was probably best to ask. Looks like, for IRMAA purposes, married-filing-separately jumps directly ...
by MarkVH0518
Tue Jul 10, 2018 8:14 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.
Replies: 30
Views: 3310

Re: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.

I would not fund a DAF for use past 70.5 if you have an IRA unless the tax rate is significantly higher in the year you fund the DAF compared to your IRA years. DAFs carry expenses that are not needed in an IRA and you can use the QCD to fund charity at that point without incurring the DAF expenses...
by MarkVH0518
Tue Jul 10, 2018 8:06 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.
Replies: 30
Views: 3310

Re: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.

Were you planning on switching to filing taxes married-filing-jointly at IRMAA age? I'm guessing so, since you mention the $214,000 threshold (which applies to married-filing-jointly), but thought it was probably best to ask. Looks like, for IRMAA purposes, married-filing-separately jumps directly ...
by MarkVH0518
Tue Jul 10, 2018 7:56 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.
Replies: 30
Views: 3310

Re: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.

MarkVHO518, Won't your plan for taking Social Security spousal benefits at 62 and then your own at 70 fall under the 2016 "deemed filing" rule? I won't be claiming spousal benefits. We will be claiming my wife's benefits at her age 62. I will not be taking any benefits until my age 70. My wife will...
by MarkVH0518
Tue Jul 10, 2018 4:10 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.
Replies: 30
Views: 3310

Retired, age 60 - Tax Plan. Please suggest improvements.

Now that I have reached 59 1/2 I'm seeing a number of tax planning possibilities that I'd not noticed before - because they were not available to me. I'd appreciate your suggestions for improving our tax management plan. I am now 60, my wife is 58.5. I have a pension of 35K; my wife has no pension. ...
by MarkVH0518
Tue Jul 10, 2018 3:53 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Can I use Fidelity's BrokerageLink to avoid 401k fees?
Replies: 14
Views: 1065

Re: Can I use Fidelity's BrokerageLink to avoid 401k fees?

Actually, it depends on the plan. The Megacorp I worked for did not charge for using Fidelity BrokerageLink, until they did. Call Fidelity and ask them; ask them to show you where the fees are described in the fine print of your company's plan. I find that Fidelity is very knowledgeable and open abo...
by MarkVH0518
Sun Feb 18, 2018 8:42 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: How to File Separately after Joint Estimated Payments
Replies: 4
Views: 549

Re: How to File Separately after Joint Estimated Payments

A progress report: I was able to talk to the IRS about this question on Friday and the answer was exactly noted by Mark and Chip. Just file returns claiming the necessary estimated payments for each return, when the IRS notes that the payments don't match their records we would (1) receive the refun...
by MarkVH0518
Fri Feb 16, 2018 11:35 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: How to File Separately after Joint Estimated Payments
Replies: 4
Views: 549

How to File Separately after Joint Estimated Payments

Surprising to me, it will be to our advantage to file separately in 2017. We are retired and I control our income and tax payment. I made my expected estimated tax payments for 2017 and then with tax law change I funded a charity account and now will get significant refunds for 2017. The Problem: Ho...
by MarkVH0518
Wed Jan 10, 2018 8:13 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Input/Thoughts Needed: Education/Career Path - Crucial Life Point
Replies: 14
Views: 1184

Re: Input/Thoughts Needed: Education/Career Path - Crucial Life Point

I was a software engineer who eventually moved to the business side; I don't consider myself an expert. Accounts are (justifiably!) accused of "knowing the cost of everything and the value of nothing". Although an accountant might not enjoy a successful former poker player as a colleague I suspect t...
by MarkVH0518
Mon Dec 18, 2017 6:02 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: How long to hold 80/20 asset allocation
Replies: 58
Views: 11692

Re: How long to hold 80/20 asset allocation

I'll be the contrarian. I think 80/20 is too aggressive for a 30 year old. I realize that's not standard fare in this forum. Personally, I don't think 2008 was an adequate test of fortitude in a downturn. Yes, 2008 was a steep decline, but it was much too short of duration. I'm retired at age 60 and...
by MarkVH0518
Fri Nov 17, 2017 3:58 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Monte Carlo Analysis VS Historical Rolling Periods
Replies: 28
Views: 2834

Re: Monte Carlo Analysis VS Historical Rolling Periods

Jim Otar (referenced above) has convinced me that the in real world (i.e. based on historical data) the Monte Carlo method is too optimistic. The reason being that down years *do* correlate; one bad year has a tendency to lead to another bad year. Of course, the problem is that one is most vulnerabl...
by MarkVH0518
Sun Nov 05, 2017 8:55 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Should I open an account with Vanguard?
Replies: 28
Views: 3225

Re: Should I open an account with Vanguard?

Vanguard customer service is *not* stellar. Vanguard customer service struggles.
I buy Vanguard ETFs elsewhere. My personal favorite is Fidelity.

Mark
by MarkVH0518
Sun Oct 22, 2017 11:38 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: J. Clements: Jack's Comments at 2017 Bogleheads Conference
Replies: 18
Views: 3071

Re: J. Clements: Jack's Comments at 2017 Bogleheads Conference

“I spend half my time worrying about why I have so much in stocks and half my time worrying about why I have so little.” Jack says his portfolio is split evenly between stocks and bonds.

Well, now I know I have one thing in common with Jack Bogle ;)
by MarkVH0518
Tue Aug 29, 2017 9:38 am
Forum: Local Chapters and Bogleheads Community
Topic: New Columbus, Ohio Chapter
Replies: 84
Views: 13156

Re: New Columbus, Ohio Chapter

I'm interested
by MarkVH0518
Fri Aug 25, 2017 8:44 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Retirement anxiety- emotionally and financially
Replies: 55
Views: 8242

Re: Retirement anxiety- emotionally and financially

Can you retire? Probably, but probably's not a good enough answer. I'm with Victoria, 4% is not a SWR for a 53 year old couple. Remember, retirement is self insurance for long life, but with only 2 individuals you don't have the advantage of statistical averages. Since you are not yet committed I re...
by MarkVH0518
Fri Aug 18, 2017 2:05 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Q&A WITH JACK BOGLE - Got a Question for Jack?
Replies: 53
Views: 15391

Re: Q&A WITH JACK BOGLE - Got a Question for Jack?

I'd like to propose yet another follow up question regarding a market with lots of index investors: Could we reach a point where index funds managers are required to take up the role of board management because there is no one else is performing that role? Or perhaps rephrased more ominously, if the...
by MarkVH0518
Sun Jun 25, 2017 2:47 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: 58 years old and laid off seeking advices
Replies: 43
Views: 6878

Re: 58 years old and laid off seeking advices

Your situation is not so very different from mine. I'm 59; DW 57. I retired 2 years ago; she retired 3 years ago. Our assets are a bit larger than your and our expenses a bit more too. But we are close. My last 2 years of work I was hoping for a lay off to receive severance. It never came so when a ...
by MarkVH0518
Mon May 01, 2017 4:49 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Future value of Money and Asset Allocation
Replies: 14
Views: 1554

Re: Future value of Money and Asset Allocation

Instead of estimating an inflation rate, I choose real rate of return. Then all projections can be considered in constant dollars. This works well for investments. It doesn't work as well when estimating pay raises. My favorite real rate of return is 2%, which often means my projections are conserva...
by MarkVH0518
Thu Mar 09, 2017 5:07 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Investment Portfolio Help- 31 y/o 1st time poster
Replies: 12
Views: 1122

Re: Investment Portfolio Help- 31 y/o 1st time poster

Well, I will give a lecture on avoiding your company stock. I came of age in the tech boom working for what was, even then, a fading telecom company, although that was not apparent at the time (except in the PE ratio). My investing colleagues were hounding me about not investing in my company and ot...
by MarkVH0518
Thu Mar 09, 2017 5:06 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Investment Portfolio Help- 31 y/o 1st time poster
Replies: 12
Views: 1122

Re: Investment Portfolio Help- 31 y/o 1st time poster

Well, I will give a lecture on avoiding your company stock. I came of age in the tech boom working for what was, even then, a fading telecom company, although that was not apparent at the time (except in the PE ratio). My investing colleagues were hounding me about not investing in my company and ot...
by MarkVH0518
Sat Mar 04, 2017 6:26 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Investing Assets in a Trust as Trustee - Need Advice
Replies: 2
Views: 443

Re: Investing Assets in a Trust as Trustee - Need Advice

I don't have experience with SNT, but if I was in your situation I'd talk Fidelity about how to get these accounts moved to them and what it would cost. I trust Fidelity's opinions on tax implications. The account has enough assets that they will spend some time with you. Some of the assets may move...
by MarkVH0518
Thu Mar 02, 2017 10:33 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Possibly Financially Independent and Feeling Miserable
Replies: 153
Views: 20687

Re: Possibly Financially Independent and Feeling Miserable

I have what I think is a practical suggestion: practice retirement. My wife complained about her work, but I wouldn't let her stop until we hit my number. So she quit soon after we hit the number and I continued working. My salary pretty much matched the income we can generate from investments. Here...
by MarkVH0518
Sat Feb 25, 2017 8:52 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: new study on Investor behavior being disconnected from financial theory and reality
Replies: 89
Views: 7662

Re: new study on Investor behavior being disconnected from financial theory and reality

Larry, I have used 'dividend' as a stand-in for 'value', admittedly with only old anecdotal evidence that I will not be able to find. Are dividend stocks generally value stocks, or am I mistaken? And isn't there good justification for a value tilt on a diversified portfolio? After all, the Larry por...
by MarkVH0518
Fri Feb 24, 2017 1:12 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: How to report 1099B cost basis discrepancy on non-covered shares?
Replies: 25
Views: 4780

Re: How to report 1099B cost basis discrepancy on non-covered shares?

kaneohe, thank you for your explanations. I was indeed operating under old rules
and had not prepared my 2016 return correctly before your explanation.
by MarkVH0518
Tue Feb 21, 2017 7:46 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: How to report 1099B cost basis discrepancy on non-covered shares?
Replies: 25
Views: 4780

Re: How to report 1099B cost basis discrepancy on non-covered shares?

Just checking to ensure I’m doing this correctly. When Vanguard converted my non-covered VFWIX shares to Admiral, they converted all lots into one VFWAX share lot---treating them as having an average cost basis, so losing the cost basis information on the original VFWIX lots. I was very clear with ...
by MarkVH0518
Tue Feb 21, 2017 7:23 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: For people who think the market is going to crash, where along the continuum are we?
Replies: 117
Views: 14712

Re: For people who think the market is going to crash, where along the continuum are we?

... For the record: I'm recently retired; under 60; asset allocation: 48% stock; 52% bonds I'm thinking to reduce to 40% stock about summer time. For the record, that's less than my ten-percent-of-portfolio-wide rebalance band. What do you think you will accomplish? PJW I never thought about it tha...
by MarkVH0518
Tue Feb 21, 2017 7:16 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: For people who think the market is going to crash, where along the continuum are we?
Replies: 117
Views: 14712

Re: For people who think the market is going to crash, where along the continuum are we?

For the record: I'm recently retired; under 60; asset allocation: 48% stock; 52% bonds I'm thinking to reduce to 40% stock about summer time. Perhaps your AA needs more diversification rather than moving from 48 to 40. Are you invested Internationally? EM? Not all markets in the world are trading a...
by MarkVH0518
Tue Feb 21, 2017 7:07 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: For people who think the market is going to crash, where along the continuum are we?
Replies: 117
Views: 14712

Re: For people who think the market is going to crash, where along the continuum are we?

I'm with you and have been thinking to post the question myself. I'll jump on this post. Of course, there will be thousands of Bogleheads saying variations of "who cares", but I do. I like to look for the market trigger - where is the excess? At the tech bubble, the hints were 'day traders' and IPOs...
by MarkVH0518
Sun Feb 12, 2017 11:29 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Mortgage is paid off, now what?
Replies: 28
Views: 3978

Re: Mortgage is paid off, now what?

I suggest investigating bunching tax deductions. If you don't know what it is, Google it! I started doing it this year with my retirement, but I probably should have started when I paid off the mortgage. Now that you don't have mortgage interest to deduct, you may be able to control your deductions ...
by MarkVH0518
Fri Feb 10, 2017 11:41 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Terrible negotiator - need help with words to use [Buying a car]
Replies: 103
Views: 10604

Re: Terrible negotiation - need help with words to use [Buying a car]

To get pricing information I used True Car. Which I got for free via Consumer Reports. Which I got for free via my local library. And I searched for prices in other areas, e.g. where my children live. For example, Chicago was cheaper than Columbus - but not for all manufacturers. I probably couldn't...
by MarkVH0518
Fri Feb 10, 2017 11:25 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Terrible negotiator - need help with words to use [Buying a car]
Replies: 103
Views: 10604

Re: Terrible negotiation - need help with words to use

I can negotiate some things, but I hate haggling over prices too. Nevertheless, I've gotten good deals on cars. Here's how I accomplish it. 1) You need to be willing to walk away. So how do you do that? 2) You cannot negotiate in an emergency. Can you afford to wait? There's nothing in your post to ...
by MarkVH0518
Tue Jan 24, 2017 8:02 pm
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: What investment firm for small investors?
Replies: 14
Views: 1636

What investment firm for small investors?

After spending a third multi-hour telephone call with Vanguard support (on the same problem) I am extremely reluctant to recommend Vanguard as the investment firm for new, small investors. While my interaction this time was modestly complicated situation, i.e. attempting to enable paperless statemen...
by MarkVH0518
Mon Jan 16, 2017 8:13 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Four 401k Fund Options - Need Advice
Replies: 17
Views: 1414

Re: Four 401k Fund Options - Need Advice

My suggestion would be to put your bond allocation and your international stock allocation in your Roth IRAs and rollover IRA at Vanguard, and just use Vanguard Institutional Index Fund Plus (VIIIX) ER 0.02% in your 401k. This suggestion deserves seconding. When you have, as is quite typical, a 401...
by MarkVH0518
Thu Dec 29, 2016 4:07 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Expected returns 2017-2047
Replies: 30
Views: 3644

Re: Expected returns 2017-2047

That said - I disagree with the suggestion the US is now like the UK. We are quite different. Plus we have not lost our reserve currency yet (and no one is even close to taking it from us). In fact some feel the second most widely used currency (the Euro) is more likely to break up than to replace ...
by MarkVH0518
Thu Dec 29, 2016 8:00 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Expected returns 2017-2047
Replies: 30
Views: 3644

Re: Expected returns 2017-2047

Here is a great link to show historical 30 year rolling returns: http://www.advisorperspectives.com/dshort/updates/2016/12/19/the-latest-look-at-the-total-return-roller-coaster? Here is the 30 yr graph from that link http://www.advisorperspectives.com/images/content_image/data/14/14cb51645e18b0836b...
by MarkVH0518
Tue Dec 13, 2016 2:22 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Vanguard or Fidelity for 401k
Replies: 11
Views: 1613

Re: Vanguard or Fidelity for 401k

Since I primarily invest in Vanguard ETF, I much, much prefer Fidelity for their processes and expertise in investing and tax impacts. If you are investing in mutual funds, then Vanguard may be preferred. I have found that Vanguard is befuddled by tax questions and their processes are clumsy. Fideli...