Search found 1058 matches

by TedSwippet
Sun Dec 04, 2016 3:53 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Late 20's Overseas American Couple, how can we invest for retirement?
Replies: 5
Views: 607

Re: Late 20's Overseas American Couple, how can we invest for retirement?

Your largest problem with investing as a US citizen abroad is likely to be tax. Specifically US tax laws, which make it largely a non-starter for you to invest as would your current home country's own citizens and residents. If you haven't already seen it, this wiki page lays out a fair bit of the f...
by TedSwippet
Sat Dec 03, 2016 7:11 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: What happens to my ROTH IRA with Betterment when my green card expires?
Replies: 4
Views: 518

Re: What happens to my ROTH IRA with Betterment when my green card expires?

The answer to the question posed in the subject line comes, I would say, in two parts. The first is that you probably can't rely on what Betterment says here. This is not to single them out as being especially untrustworthy -- I'm sure they're fine folk doing their best to help you. It's just that t...
by TedSwippet
Wed Nov 30, 2016 9:19 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Short question on no. of funds in portfolio
Replies: 7
Views: 712

Re: Short question on no. of funds in portfolio

For my situation in UK, my belief is if my ISA allowance was used to purchase the vanguard lifestrategy fund, any profits/reinvested dividends will also be tax free. Right. Also capital gains tax free when you sell, no matter how much gain or whether you have other unsheltered gains. Also, nothing ...
by TedSwippet
Wed Nov 30, 2016 5:16 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Short question on no. of funds in portfolio
Replies: 7
Views: 712

Re: Short question on no. of funds in portfolio

For context, elitistuser is UK-based and not a US citizen. Maybe colo[u]r responses appropriately, then.

elitistuser, in responses so far, for 401k, 403b and IRA read "pension", for "Roth IRA" read "ISA", and for HSA read... nope, no real UK equivalent.
by TedSwippet
Wed Nov 30, 2016 4:28 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: New UK investor need help with passive investment plan
Replies: 7
Views: 537

Re: New UK investor need help with passive investment plan

A few thoughts. You can take £11,100 of capital gain each year, meaning you can withdraw more than that (a portion of the withdrawal will be principal). For example, invest £10k and watch it double -- you could withdraw the whole £20k in one year without paying capital gains tax. If it trebled, you ...
by TedSwippet
Mon Nov 28, 2016 6:15 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: First investment advice for a European
Replies: 7
Views: 665

Re: First investment advice for a European

The OP is actually in a reasonably good situation for using US domiciled ETFs, should this be optimum once other issues (forex and so on) are out of the way. The US/Swiss tax treaty rate on dividends is 15% (not 30% as mentioned earlier), and Switzerland has an estate tax treaty with the US that, al...
by TedSwippet
Thu Nov 24, 2016 8:00 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Dutch Expat portfolio check without retirement country
Replies: 4
Views: 365

Re: Dutch Expat portfolio check without retirement country

Potentially looking for a 3d fund, ... Why? If you can't answer with anything other than expressing a desire to try and optimize, I would stop now :-) Your portfolio looks fine as it is. Depending on which countries you end up in, there are possible problems with local taxes and holding 'offshore' ...
by TedSwippet
Wed Nov 16, 2016 1:57 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: UK SIPP Provider Recommendations?
Replies: 2
Views: 136

Re: UK SIPP Provider Recommendations?

I'd suggest reposting this on a UK based site. This board is highly US centric, and most folk here won't know (or care) what a SIPP is.

Perhaps here, here, or here for a repost, then.
by TedSwippet
Wed Nov 16, 2016 5:31 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Ideas on this 80/20 portfolio? [Sweden]
Replies: 14
Views: 1331

Re: Ideas on this 80/20 portfolio? [Sweden]

The fact is Vanguard just isn't a very good option for European investors yet. Perhaps Vanguard EU ETFs aren't readily available to German retail investors for some reason, but because they are listed on the London Stock Exchange they are as easy for UK investors as any other 'normal' UK stock. The...
by TedSwippet
Wed Nov 16, 2016 4:08 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Vanguard investor moving to the UK
Replies: 11
Views: 780

Re: Vanguard investor moving to the UK

I'm a US citizen. My wife is a citizen of Spain. We are planning to stay in the U.K. indefinitely, although it's definitely possible we might move back to the US at some me point. Make sure that you only hold ' HMRC reporting ' funds before you move to the UK. This will avoid UK tax issues later wi...
by TedSwippet
Wed Nov 16, 2016 3:49 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Ideas on this 80/20 portfolio? [Sweden]
Replies: 14
Views: 1331

Re: Ideas on this 80/20 portfolio? [Sweden]

They sell Vanguard funds: Mutual Funds | Interactive Brokers These funds are all US domiciled, and so are not good investment vehicles for non-US investors. Because of US taxes, and in particular US estate taxes, non-US investors should normally entirely avoid Vanguard's (and other) US domiciled fu...
by TedSwippet
Mon Nov 14, 2016 5:49 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Ideas on this 80/20 portfolio? [Sweden]
Replies: 14
Views: 1331

Re: Ideas on this 80/20 portfolio? [Sweden]

Sweden and the US have no estate tax treaty . By investing through the US domiciled ETFs that you listed, you risk losing 40% of holdings above $60k to US estate taxes should you have the poor judgement to die while holding them. To avoid this, consider using Vanguard's Ireland domiciled ETFs instead.
by TedSwippet
Fri Nov 11, 2016 3:56 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Any advantages to multiple citizenships?
Replies: 33
Views: 2132

Re: Any advantages to multiple citizenships?

AlohaJoe wrote:There may be tax disadvantages, where you are forced to file and possibly pay taxes for all the citizenships.

To enlarge on this... only the US and Eritrea will tax systematically and comprehensively based on citizenship alone.
by TedSwippet
Mon Oct 31, 2016 11:39 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Questions about the all weather portfolio [Denmark]
Replies: 28
Views: 2043

Re: Questions about the all weather portfolio [Denmark]

what i mean i am only 26 year old and it is not may plan to die in 2 years ... I don't suppose it is in many people's plan to die in a set number of years, but stuff happens over which you have no control, and some of it can happen very quickly. Of course though, it is your money. Just be clear tha...
by TedSwippet
Sun Oct 30, 2016 12:51 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Questions about the all weather portfolio [Denmark]
Replies: 28
Views: 2043

Re: Questions about the all weather portfolio [Denmark]

Estate Tax is how to manage your investments and property after you die. The US estate tax for NRAs can be a major factor in how to arrange and manage investments before you die, since it is too late to fix things later. While the exemption for US citizens is around $5mm or so, it is only just over...
by TedSwippet
Mon Oct 24, 2016 3:39 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Portfolio advice for an American in Belgium
Replies: 6
Views: 446

Re: Portfolio advice for an American in Belgium

... for an American in Belgium (for life). If by this you mean you do not anticipate residing the US in future then I'll just throw out a consideration here, perhaps one you have already considered, which is that you would massively simplify your investing and financial life by taking the increasin...
by TedSwippet
Wed Oct 19, 2016 7:14 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Vanguard and correct withholding rates for foreign persons
Replies: 2
Views: 237

Re: Vanguard and correct withholding rates for foreign persons

In my experience with the prime money market account -- UK based and with W-8BEN in place -- Vanguard withholds 15% in some months, and less than in 15% others. I suspect it may be due to some (fund-internal?) variability in the dividend/interest breakdown of the distributions across different month...
by TedSwippet
Wed Oct 19, 2016 3:01 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Brazilian Citizen Investing - Wish to Limit Credit / Currency Risk
Replies: 5
Views: 313

Re: Brazilian Citizen Investing - Wish to Limit Credit / Currency Risk

- You probably have a tax treaty with the US which may change (or make irrelevant) any of the above. All you can do is read the tax treaty to figure out what it says. Brazil lacks both an income tax and an estate tax treaty with the US. - Owning US assets exposes you to US estate taxes, which are w...
by TedSwippet
Fri Oct 14, 2016 7:43 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: Data scraping into Google Sheets help
Replies: 5
Views: 304

Re: Data scraping into Google Sheets help

My guess is that the problem is indeed to do with cookies.

The ImportHTML implementation needs to appear to the site as a browser (or at minimum an HTTP client), but probably does not support cookie storage.
by TedSwippet
Thu Oct 13, 2016 11:07 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: NRA avoiding tax withholding [Argentina resident]
Replies: 12
Views: 713

Re: NRA avoiding tax withholding [Argentina resident]

I have to find out if we do have access to Irish ETF in Argentina. What you actually need is access to one of the exchanges on which Ireland domiciled ETFs trade. Most easy would probably be the London Stock Exchange (LSE). You then buy there, just as you would a US domiciled ETF on the NYSE. It sh...
by TedSwippet
Thu Oct 13, 2016 8:03 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: NRA avoiding tax withholding [Argentina resident]
Replies: 12
Views: 713

Re: NRA avoiding tax withholding [Argentina resident]

Is there really a tax estate risk if I hold the assets in an Argentinian custodian? Yes. Not all non-US brokers correctly enforce US estate taxes, but the risk of it applying is real. And enforcement by non-US brokers could increase in future. Given that you would be better off holding Ireland domi...
by TedSwippet
Thu Oct 13, 2016 4:16 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: NRA avoiding tax withholding [Argentina resident]
Replies: 12
Views: 713

Re: NRA avoiding tax withholding [Argentina resident]

The problem is that offshore ETFs are absurdly expensive. VT 's TER is 0.14%. VWRL 's is 0.25%. This is higher, but it is far from "absurd", and the 0.11% increase is more than offset by the 0.45% or so that is the 15% of dividends saved over holding VT. For ETFs tracking the S&P 500 ...
by TedSwippet
Thu Oct 13, 2016 3:57 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: NRA with US Vanguard & Fidelity Account mistake? Avoid 30% withholding
Replies: 5
Views: 556

Re: NRA with US Vanguard & Fidelity Account mistake? Avoid 30% withholding

Which country do you live in? In which country are you domiciled? The two are often but not necessarily the same. Do you anticipate moving to another country, and if so, which? Knowing these will help determine your best way forwards. At the moment you are indeed probably taking a bit of a chance wi...
by TedSwippet
Thu Oct 13, 2016 3:08 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: NRA avoiding tax withholding [Argentina resident]
Replies: 12
Views: 713

Re: NRA avoiding tax withholding [Argentina resident]

What bothers me is the double tax I have to pay because there's no Argentina-USA treaty. You can reduce or remove this problem this by holding Vanguard's Ireland domiciled ETFs in place of the US domiciled ones you currently hold. These two wiki pages show how: Nonresident alien taxation Nonresiden...
by TedSwippet
Sun Oct 09, 2016 5:32 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: First Portfolio (for retirement) - British
Replies: 16
Views: 1174

Re: First Portfolio (for retirement) - British

I've read somewhere that FTSE250 trackers do have 15% overlap of FTSE 100 stocks in them as there are quite a few large investment trusts in the FTSE250 which hold a lot of FTSE100 company stock. This Morningstar article explains the issue. This is not a fault of tracker funds, but rather just an a...
by TedSwippet
Sun Oct 09, 2016 10:32 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: First Portfolio (for retirement) - British
Replies: 16
Views: 1174

Re: First Portfolio (for retirement) - British

For small caps ... if you don't think it is worth it, even longer term, then I won't bother. It's not what I think that matters here, it's what you think :-). The problem, as ever, is that nobody knows whether or not it is 'worth it' in advance but only with hindsight. Historically some small cap v...
by TedSwippet
Sun Oct 09, 2016 6:07 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: First Portfolio (for retirement) - British
Replies: 16
Views: 1174

Re: First Portfolio (for retirement) - British

I'd second the previous poster. As a general rule I've found over time that simpler is better. The more bells and whistles you add, the more of a hassle it becomes to attend to them all. A couple of specific points on your initial post. Firstly, you may have the wrong idea about the FTSE 100 and FTS...
by TedSwippet
Fri Oct 07, 2016 4:09 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Am I making the right choices? [UK ex-pat]
Replies: 3
Views: 248

Re: Am I making the right choices? [UK ex-pat]

As far the mechanics of buying what you have, this looks fine to me. VWRD trades in several currencies, one of which is the USD so you might as well purchase directly with that currency. The others only trade in GBP, so if you want them you don't have any choice but to purchase using GBP. It might b...
by TedSwippet
Thu Oct 06, 2016 12:00 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Uk Expat living in Far East, Portfolio Rebalancing. (again)
Replies: 7
Views: 409

Re: Uk Expat living in Far East, Portfolio Rebalancing. (again)

... but still averse to US domiciled finds for the 15% WHT on Divs. It's actually 30% for non-treaty countries. Singapore has no tax treaty with the US. Also no estate tax treaty. I have also overweighted on a couple of "frontier" markets (Philippines & Indonesia) simply because of my...
by TedSwippet
Sat Oct 01, 2016 12:33 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Investing from the UK as a US resident (oh my!)
Replies: 9
Views: 748

Re: Investing from the UK as a US resident (oh my!)

What about transferring the UK pension to a SIPP? I believe such an account can be held in US Dollars and can hold US or global investments. Holding US investments in a SIPP would get around some of the worst tax issues. The remaining problem, though, is that gains inside the SIPP -- interest, divi...
by TedSwippet
Sat Oct 01, 2016 3:45 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Investing from the UK as a US resident (oh my!)
Replies: 9
Views: 748

Re: Investing from the UK as a US resident (oh my!)

When I mentioned this to HR, they told me that I'll have to opt out of the pension every month . I think that's ridiculous, but I intend to do it. This sounds like HR don't know what they are talking about. An employer has to auto-enrol new employees, and then re-enrol any opt-outs every three year...
by TedSwippet
Fri Sep 30, 2016 11:21 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Why are there fees every month in my Vanguard 401k?
Replies: 13
Views: 956

Re: Why are there fees every month in my Vanguard 401k?

Yet under the fee tab for each fund, I have "None" for purchase fee, redemption fee and 12-1b fee. So what fees are these? If you follow the links from My Accounts -> Employer Plans -> Plan Details -> Plan Communications can you see a Fee Disclosure or similar document(s) in the Legal and...
by TedSwippet
Fri Sep 30, 2016 7:24 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Investing from the UK as a US resident (oh my!)
Replies: 9
Views: 748

Re: Investing from the UK as a US resident (oh my!)

Does this check out? I'd say you have the right initial approach. You may well have to jump through some extra hoops to get a bank account in the UK as a US citizen; thanks to FATCA most are now very wary of taking on US citizens. Some may refuse you point-blank, while others will insist on a W9 be...
by TedSwippet
Wed Sep 28, 2016 2:59 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Transferred cash to UK account. Now what?
Replies: 8
Views: 461

Re: Transferred cash to UK account. Now what?

Being taxed on worldwide income is normal. The NZ FIF tax rules are the sort of additional tax nightmare I had in mind. It looks like in your case you would skirt well under the $50k limit and so escape the worst of it, but it's an example of just how much governments in general dislike their reside...
by TedSwippet
Tue Sep 27, 2016 2:12 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Transferred cash to UK account. Now what?
Replies: 8
Views: 461

Re: Transferred cash to UK account. Now what?

I doubt any of the 'normal' UK investment platforms -- Hargreaves Lansdown, Youinvest, and so on -- are going to let you open an account, either ISA or just regular trading. Some will occasionally take EU residents (perhaps after a bit of haggling!) but that's not you. Your best bet is probably to g...
by TedSwippet
Tue Sep 27, 2016 4:08 am
Forum: Personal Finance (Not Investing)
Topic: foreigner - closing 401k : what tax? [France]
Replies: 5
Views: 549

Re: foreigner - closing 401k : what tax? [France]

It's very difficult/unclear to know how I should declare this account to the french tax. It is quite unclear. The US/France tax treaty has been patched up more times than a hyperactive seven year old in a concrete playground. The main treaty from 1994 covers pensions and retirement savings -- on a ...
by TedSwippet
Mon Sep 26, 2016 3:53 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: How much is free lifetime healthcare worth? [Start business in US or Canada?]
Replies: 22
Views: 2135

Re: How much is free lifetime healthcare worth? [Start business in US or Canada?]

Even if you are "covered" and face an exit tax, it's on unrealized gains and there is an exclusion amount of $626k (of unrealized capital gains) for each you and your spouse (assuming both are renouncing). For completeness, there are two more elements to the US exit tax that are often ove...
by TedSwippet
Sun Sep 25, 2016 3:09 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Have a unique situation - how to execute Three-Fund Portfolio properly?
Replies: 6
Views: 807

Re: Have a unique situation - how to execute Three-Fund Portfolio properly?

boggledhead91 wrote:Or should I move my money to CAD, keep my emergency fund in USD, but invest in a Canadian version of the Three-Fund Portfolio?

If you're going to be resident in the US in future, almost certainly not this one. The US tax treatment of non-US domiciled funds will make you envy the dead.
by TedSwippet
Tue Sep 20, 2016 7:01 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: How to invest for Indian living in USA on H1 visa?
Replies: 21
Views: 1890

Re: How to invest for Indian living in USA on H1 visa?

You should ignore all the advice given so far in this thread and get an actual tax advisor who is skilled with cross-border tax planning for non-resident aliens (because that is what you will be if you leave the U.S. in the long term) ... It comes down to whether you think you will stay in the U.S....
by TedSwippet
Sun Sep 18, 2016 4:53 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Non-Resident Alien investor (Brazil + India) – Portfolio Advice Needed
Replies: 4
Views: 467

Re: Non-Resident Alien investor (Brazil + India) – Portfolio Advice Needed

I noticed that ETFS following the same index and issued by same issuers but denominated with different currencies vary quite a bit. ... should I one who has to invest in a different currency invest in the better performing currency? An ETFs trading currencies and its base currency are just convenie...
by TedSwippet
Sun Sep 18, 2016 3:38 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Best tax strategy for Non Resident Aliens
Replies: 3
Views: 343

Re: Best tax strategy for Non Resident Aliens

If your country has a US tax treaty you will probably pay less than 30% in US tax on dividends. The US tax treaty rates for dividends are here . Which country do you live in? Another way to sidestep most US dividend taxes (and all US estate taxes) is to buy ETFs that are not domiciled in the US, for...
by TedSwippet
Sat Sep 17, 2016 12:13 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Here goes nothing: UK citizen, Saudi based, mid-30s.
Replies: 14
Views: 1384

Re: Here goes nothing: UK citizen, Saudi based, mid-30s.

If there's a chance of someone moving back to UK, I usually suggest ones domiciled in Ireland? I would call that an excellent rule of thumb. There are some US domiciled ETFs that are UK-reporting, but all -- or at least all I know of, and very likely all we'd be interested in here -- domiciled in I...
by TedSwippet
Sat Sep 17, 2016 8:09 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Here goes nothing: UK citizen, Saudi based, mid-30s.
Replies: 14
Views: 1384

Re: Here goes nothing: UK citizen, Saudi based, mid-30s.

just get the cheapest, never mind its reporting status. Reporting status is certainly a non-issue until back in the UK. Beyond that though, the decision is not at all as black-and-white as just getting the cheapest. Many (perhaps most) of the apparently 'cheapest' ETFs -- that is, those with the lo...
by TedSwippet
Sat Sep 17, 2016 7:59 am
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Here goes nothing: UK citizen, Saudi based, mid-30s.
Replies: 14
Views: 1384

Re: Here goes nothing: UK citizen, Saudi based, mid-30s.

Someone from Guardian Wealth Management was pushing me to consider a wrapper for my funds. Would that be the same Guardian Wealth Management mentioned in this article ? I guess if I can buy index funds through TDI that have the HMRC "Distributor" status I should be good to go. Right. I ha...
by TedSwippet
Thu Sep 15, 2016 12:13 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: UK Investment Plan (SIPP + ISA) Starting Out
Replies: 19
Views: 1101

Re: UK Investment Plan (SIPP + ISA) Starting Out

Vanguard's research paper on 'Best Practices' for ETF Trading might be useful. An excerpt: Three of the key best practices discussed for individual investors who trade ETFs are: (1) avoid the use of “market” orders—instead, consider using “marketable limit” orders; (2) avoid trading at either the ma...
by TedSwippet
Tue Sep 06, 2016 10:39 am
Forum: Personal Consumer Issues
Topic: Visiting Peru/Machu Picchu
Replies: 16
Views: 1104

Re: Visiting Peru/Macchu Picchu during Columbus Day?

triceratop wrote:Don't visit the UK during July 4, I heard there are raucous celebrations and, overall, too much noise.

Yup. We call it Good Riddance Day.
by TedSwippet
Mon Sep 05, 2016 10:26 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Fund fees unclear, is something hidden? [UK]
Replies: 16
Views: 1335

Re: Fund fees unclear, is something hidden? [UK]

'Platform' fees relate to Unit Trusts (Mutual Funds) and similar; not Stocks, ETFs, Investment Trusts, etc. This is why some as noted above prefer ETFs to Unit Trusts. Some platforms charge 'platform fees' only for funds, and some charge 'platform fees' for all investments held (funds, stocks, ETFs...
by TedSwippet
Mon Sep 05, 2016 3:17 am
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Fund fees unclear, is something hidden? [UK]
Replies: 16
Views: 1335

Re: Fund fees unclear, is something hidden? [UK]

I am also confused as the same words are used by different companies but in a different order, sometimes in singular or plural: ... Absent any other indication I would assume that these are all the same thing, and that different organisations just move the words around a bit through ignorance or ca...
by TedSwippet
Sun Sep 04, 2016 2:20 pm
Forum: Investing - Help with Personal Investments
Topic: Taxation for resident of Lithuania: US domiciled vs Irish domiciled ETFs - LTU has tax treaty with both
Replies: 30
Views: 1633

Re: Taxation for resident of Lithuania: US domiciled vs Irish domiciled ETFs - LTU has tax treaty with both

galeno wrote:That would be for USA-domiciled equity ETFs.

Indeed, and I should have added that qualification.

Thanks for the note -- it just goes to show how nuanced and subtle this entire area can be. (Excepting the US estate tax for NRAs of course; there's nothing at all subtle about that sledgehammer.)
by TedSwippet
Sun Sep 04, 2016 12:07 pm
Forum: Investing - Theory, News & General
Topic: Fund fees unclear, is something hidden? [UK]
Replies: 16
Views: 1335

Re: Fund fees unclear, is something hidden? [UK]

It is safe to say that broker and investment platform charges in the UK are currently in a poor state. All of the recent push towards cost transparency has reduced costs, in some cases dramatically. But... the increased complexity of what retail investors have to deal with when comparing fees is now...

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